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Grand Army of the Republic
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This article is about the U.S. veterans organization. For other uses, see Grand Army of the Republic (disambiguation).
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The Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) was a fraternal organization composed of veterans of the Union Army (United States Army), Union Navy (U.S. Navy), Marines and the U.S. Revenue Cutter Service who served in the American Civil War. It was founded in 1866 in Springfield, Illinois, and grew to include hundreds of "posts" (local community units) across the nation (predominantly in the North, but also a few in the South and West). It was dissolved in 1956 at the death of its last member, Albert Woolson (1850–1956) of Duluth, Minnesota.

Linking men through their experience of the war, the G.A.R. became among the first organized advocacy groups in American politics, supporting voting rights for black veterans, promoting patriotic education, helping to make Memorial Day a national holiday, lobbying the United States Congress to establish regular veterans' pensions, and supporting Republican political candidates. Its peak membership, at 410,000, was in 1890, a high point of various Civil War commemorative and monument dedication ceremonies. It was succeeded by the Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War (SUVCW), composed of male descendants of Union Army and Union Navy veterans.

The Confederate equivalent of the GAR were the United Confederate Veterans.

History
G.A.R. Uniform Hat Badge from Post No. 146, "RG Shaw Post", established by surviving members of the 54th Massachusetts Regiment in 1871 (R. Andre Stevens Civil War Collection)

After the end of American Civil War, various state and local organizations were formed for veterans to network and maintain connections with each other. Many of the veterans used their shared experiences as a basis for fellowship. Groups of men began joining together, first for camaraderie and later for political power. Emerging as most influential among the various organizations during the first post-war years was the Grand Army of the Republic, founded on April 6, 1866, on the principles of "Fraternity, Charity and Loyalty," in Springfield, Illinois, by Dr. Benjamin F. Stephenson and the first GAR Post was established in Decatur, Illinois.

The GAR initially grew and prospered as a de facto political arm of the Republican Party during the heated political contests of the Reconstruction Era. The commemoration of Union Army and Navy veterans, black and white, immediately became entwined with partisan politics. The GAR promoted voting rights for Negro veterans, as many white veterans recognized their demonstrated patriotism and sacrifices, providing one of the first racially integrated social/fraternal organizations in America. Black veterans, who enthusiastically embraced the message of equality, shunned black veterans' organizations in preference for racially inclusive and integrated groups. But when the Republican Party's commitment to reform in the South gradually decreased, the GAR's mission became ill-defined and the organization floundered. The GAR almost disappeared in the early 1870s, and many state-centered divisions, named "departments", and local posts ceased to exist.[1]

In his General Order No. 11, dated May 5, 1868, first GAR Commander-in-Chief, General John A. Logan declared May 30 to be Memorial Day (also referred to for many years as "Decoration Day"), calling upon the GAR membership to make the May 30 observance an annual occurrence. Although not the first time war graves had been decorated, Logan's order effectively established "Memorial Day" as the day upon which Americans now pay tribute to all their war casualties, missing-in-action, and deceased veterans. As decades passed, similarly inspired commemorations also spread across the South as "Confederate Memorial Day" or "Confederate Decoration Day", usually in April, led by organizations of Southern soldiers in the parallel United Confederate Veterans.[2]

Reverse of the G.A.R. Badge
GAR marker, beside a veteran's grave in Portland Street Cemetery, South Berwick, Maine

In the 1880s, the Union veterans' organization revived under new leadership that provided a platform for renewed growth, by advocating Federal pensions for veterans. As the organization revived, black veterans joined in significant numbers and organized local posts. The national organization, however, failed to press the case for similar pensions for black soldiers. Most black troops never received any pension or remuneration for wounds incurred during their Civil War service.[3]

The GAR was organized into "Departments" at the state level and "Posts" at the community level, and military-style uniforms were worn by its members. There were posts in every state in the U.S., and several posts overseas.[3] The pattern of establishing departments and local posts was later used by other American military veterans' organizations, such as the Veterans of Foreign Wars (organized originally for veterans of the Spanish–American War and the Philippine Insurrection) and the later American Legion (for the First World War and later expanded to include subsequent World War II, Korean, Vietnam and Middle Eastern wars).

The G.A.R.'s political power grew during the latter part of the 19th century, and it helped elect several United States presidents, beginning with the 18th, Ulysses S. Grant, and ending with the 25th, William McKinley. Six Civil War veterans (Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Chester A. Arthur; Benjamin Harrison, and McKinley) were elected President of the United States; all were Republicans. (The sole post-war Democratic president was Grover Cleveland, the 22nd and 24th chief executive.) For a time, candidates could not get Republican presidential or congressional nominations without the endorsement of the GAR veterans voting bloc. Of the six mentioned US Presidents, at least four were members of the G.A.R.:

  • Ulysses S. Grant (Lt General of the Union Armies} Became a member of the Philadelphia PA George G. Meade Post GAR Post # 1 May 16, 1877[4][5]
  • Rutherford B. Hayes (Brevet Major General) Became a Member of the Fremont Ohio Manville Moore GAR Post[6]
  • James A. Garfield (Major General) Possibly a member of the G.A.R.-a GAR Post publication refers to the death of Comrade James Garfield, President of the United States[7]
  • Benjamin Harrison (Brevet Brigadier General) Became a member of the Indianapolis Indiana General George H. Thomas GAR Post[8]
  • William McKinley. (Brevet Major of the 23d Ohio) Became a member of the Canton Ohio GAR Post # 25 July 7, 1880 [It was later renamed McKinley GAR Post # 25][9]

With membership strictly limited to "veterans of the late unpleasantness," the GAR encouraged the formation of Allied Orders to aid them in various works. Numerous male organizations jousted for the backing of the GAR, and the political battles became quite severe until the GAR finally endorsed the Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War as its heir.

Female members[edit]

Although an overwhelmingly male organization, the GAR is known to have had at least two women who were members.

The first female known to be admitted to the GAR was Kady Brownell, who served in the Union Army with her husband Robert, a private in the 1st Rhode Island Infantry at the First Battle of Bull Run in Virginia and with the 5th Rhode Island Infantry at the Battle of New Berne in North Carolina. Kady was admitted as a member in 1870 to Elias Howe Jr. Post #3, in Bridgeport, Connecticut. The GAR insignia is engraved on her gravestone in the North Burial Ground in Providence, Rhode Island.[10]

In 1897 the GAR admitted Sarah Emma Edmonds, who served in the 2nd Michigan Infantry as a disguised man named Franklin Thompson from May 1861 until April 1863. In 1882, she collected affidavits from former comrades in an effort to petition for a veteran's pension which she received in July 1884. Edmonds was only a member for a brief period as she died September 5, 1898; however she was given a funeral with military honors when she was reburied in Houston in 1901.[11]

It is possible that other women were members of the GAR as well.

  • Kady Brownwell

  • Sarah Emma Edmonds

Later years[edit]

The GAR reached its largest enrollment in 1890, with 410,000 members.[12] It held an annual "National Encampment" every year from 1866 to 1949. Interesting anecdotes from the war were told around the many campfires at these reunions and compiled in a book of campfire "chats", including descriptions of the festivities at the 1884-1886 encampments in Minneapolis, Portland, Maine and San Francisco.[13] At the final encampment in Indianapolis, Indiana, the few surviving members voted to retain the existing officers in place until the organization's dissolution. Theodore Penland of Oregon, the GAR's Commander at the time, was therefore its last. In 1956, after the death of the last member, Albert Woolson, the GAR was formally dissolved.[1]

GAR parade during the 1914 Encampment in Detroit, Michigan
Memorials, honors and commemorations[edit]
The 1948 postal stamp commemorating the GAR's final national encampment.
Memorial Hall Sidney, Ohio which housed the GAR Post.
Grand Army of the Republic Hall 102 Mary St.Boscobel, Wisconsin.

There are physical memorials to the Grand Army of the Republic in numerous communities throughout the United States.

U.S. Route 6 is known as the Grand Army of the Republic Highway for its entire length.[14]

The Commemoration of the American Civil War on postage stamps began during the conflict by both sides. In 1948, the Grand Army of the Republic was commemorated on a stamp.[15] In 1951, the U.S. Postal Service printed a virtually identical stamp for the final reunion of the United Confederate Veterans.[16]

State posts[edit]

Every state (even those of the former Confederacy) fell within a GAR "Department," and within these Departments were the "Posts" (forerunners of modern American Legion Halls or VFW Halls). The posts were made up of local veterans, many of whom participated in local civic events. As the posts were formed, they were assigned to the home Department of the National Commander-in-chief of the year that they were chartered. There was no GAR post in London, but there was a Civil War Veterans Association Group that had many GAR members belonging to it.

As Civil War veterans died or were no longer able to participate in GAR activities, posts consolidated or were disbanded.[17] Posts were assigned a sequential number based on their admission into the state's GAR organization, and most posts held informal names which honored comrades, battles, or commanders; it was not uncommon to have more than one post in a state honoring the same individual (such as Abraham Lincoln) and posts often changed their informal designation by vote of the local membership. See:

In popular culture[edit]
A replica of the USS Kearsarge displayed at the 1893 GAR National Convention in Indianapolis, Indiana

John Steinbeck's East of Eden features several references to the Grand Army of the Republic. Despite having very little actual battle experience during his brief military career, cut short by the loss of his leg, Adam Trask's father Cyrus joins the GAR and assumes the stature of "a great man" through his involvement with the organization. At the height of the GAR's influence in Washington, he brags to his son:

I wonder if you know how much influence I really have. I can throw the Grand Army at any candidate like a sock. Even the President likes to know what I think about public matters. I can get senators defeated and I can pick appointments like apples. I can make men and I can destroy men. Do you know that?

— Cyrus Trask (character), East of Eden

Later in the book, references are made to the graves of GAR members in California in order to emphasize the passage of time.[18]

Sinclair Lewis also refers to the GAR in his acclaimed novel Main Street[19] and in his novel It Can't Happen Here,[20] as does Charles Portis's classic novel, True Grit,[21] the GAR is briefly mentioned in William Faulkner's novel, The Sound and the Fury.[22] and Willa Cather's short story "The Sculptor's Funeral" briefly references the GAR.[23]

The GAR is mentioned in the seldom-sung second verse of the patriotic song "You're a Grand Old Flag".[24]

The GAR is referenced in John McCrae's poem He Is There! which was set to music in 1917 by Charles Ives as part of his cycle Three Songs of the War.[25]

In Ward Moore's 1953 alternate history novel Bring the Jubilee, the Confederates won the Civil War and became a major world power while the rump United States was reduced to an impoverished dependence. The Grand Army of the Republic is the name of a nationalistic organization working to restore the United States to its former glory through acts of sabotage and terrorism.[26]

Notable commanders-in-chief[edit]


Women's auxiliaries[edit]

The Woman's Relief Corps was founded in 1879 as a "secret" organization and recognized in 1883 as the "official women's auxiliary" to the G.A.R.

The Ladies of the Grand Army of the Republic was also a significant organization. As a Congressionally Chartered non-profit organization, it is the oldest women’s hereditary organization in the United States. The original objectives of the organization included promotion of patriotism and loyalty to the Union, and participation in community service, especially for the aid of our Veterans and their dependents."[27]

As original Union veterans of the G.A.R., organized in 1866, grew old, many women's groups formed to aid them and their widows and orphans. The Loyal Ladies League was established in 1881 as an auxiliary to the G.A.R.; in 1886 the organization went more national and changed its name to "The Ladies of the Grand Army of the Republic."[28]It was incorporated by Public Law 86-47 [S.949] of the 86th Congress on June 17, 1959 [29]

In 1899 the president was Dr. Julia P. Shade of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.[30]

Its president in 1922 was Mrs. Ethel M. Irish, of Fond du Lac, Wisconsin.[31]

See also[edit]References[edit]
  1. ^ Jump up to:a b Knight, Glenn B. "Brief History of the Grand Army of the Republic". suvcw.org. Retrieved 2011-01-18.
  2. ^ John E. Gilman (1910). "The Grand Army of the Republic". civilwarhome.com. Retrieved 2011-03-05.
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b "A Brief History of the Grand Army of the Republic". Grand Army of the Republic Museum and Library. Retrieved 2011-03-05.
  4. ^ Records of Members of the Grand Army of the Republic William Ward 1886 pp.545-547
  5. ^ History of the George G Meade Post..
  6. ^ Records of Members of the Grand Army of the Republic William Ward 1886 .p.515
  7. ^ What One GAR Post Has accomplished .p.85 pub 1913
  8. ^ [Speeches of Benjamin Harrison, Twenty Third President of the United States.." pub 1890]
  9. ^ GAR Memorial for Comrade McKinley 1901
  10. ^ "A female comrade of the Grand Army". New York Herald. 16 September 1870.
  11. ^ "Sarah Emma Edmonds, Private, December 1841–September 5, 1898". Civil War Trust. Retrieved 2011-06-12.
  12. ^ [1]
  13. ^ Davis, Washington (1888). Camp-Fire Chats. Chicago: Lewis Publishing Co. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  14. ^ Richard F. Weingroff (July 27, 2009). "U.S. 6-The Grand Army of the Republic Highway". Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved 2011-02-14.
  15. ^ A. Gibson, Gary (1999). "Remembering the Grand Army of the Republic Fifty Years Later". Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War. Retrieved 2011-03-02.
    B. "G.A.R. Issue". National Postal Museum. Retrieved Jan 11,2014.
  16. ^ "U.S. Stamps 1951". stampscatalog.info. Archived from the original on 2011-03-03. Retrieved 2011-03-02.
  17. ^ "List of posts and location by department". Library of Congress. 2001. Retrieved 2014-07-03.
  18. ^ "Steinbeck-East of Eden". edstephan.org. Retrieved 2011-04-20.
  19. ^ Lewis, Sinclair (12 April 2006). "XXXV". Main Street (PDF). Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 2015-01-06.
  20. ^ Lewis, Sinclair (1935). "VII". It Can't Happen Here. Feedbooks. Retrieved 2016-12-11.
  21. ^ Portis, Charles (5 December 2010). True Grit. New York: Overlook Press. Retrieved 2015-01-16.
  22. ^ The Sound and the Fury-Glossary. University of Mississippi Press. 1996. p. 54. ISBN 0-87805-936-9. Retrieved 2011-04-20.
  23. ^ "The Sculptor's Funeral". Classic Reader. Retrieved 2015-01-16.
  24. ^ George M. Cohan (1906). "You're a Grand Old Flag (Annotated Music)". Library of Congress Performing Arts Encyclopedia. New York, NY: F. A. Mills. Retrieved 2013-04-24.
  25. ^ "He Is There!". Song of America. Archived from the originalon 2011-05-10. Retrieved 2011-03-17.
  26. ^ Moore, Ward (1 January 2009). Bring the Jubilee. Wildside Press. ISBN 978-1434478535. Retrieved 2015-01-16.
  27. ^ "Ladies of the Grand Army of the Republic". Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  28. ^ "Ladies of the Grand Army of the Republic: History". Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  29. ^ United States Congress (1959). Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 86th Congress. 105. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 19861.
  30. ^ "LGAR Past National Presidents". suvcw.org. Retrieved 2019-10-12.
  31. ^ Official Register and Directory of Women's Clubs in America. XXIV. Helen M. Winslow. 1922. Retrieved August 22, 2019.

After the civil war , the North and South came together and formed a Civil War reunion, from that they merged the military into several different organizations .

The Native American Community was brought together with peace to be able to fight for this Country in unity together.


Confederate Memorial Day
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigationJump to search
Not to be confused with Memorial Day.

Confederate Memorial Day (called Confederate Heroes Day in Texas and Florida, and Confederate Decoration Day in Tennessee) is a cultural holiday observed in several Southern U.S. states on various dates since the end of the Civil War to remember the estimated 258,000 Confederate soldiers who have died in military service.[1]

The holiday is observed in late April in many states to recall the surrender of the last major Confederate field army at Bennett Place on Wednesday, April 26, 1865.[2] The holiday is unofficially observed in most Southern states, and remains an official state holiday in South Carolina, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida[3] and Tennessee.[4][5][6][7]

Origins[edit]
Confederate Memorial Day observance in front of the Monument to Confederate Dead, Arlington National Cemetery, on June 8, 2014

In the spring of 1866 the Ladies Memorial Association of Columbus, Georgia, passed a resolution to set aside one day annually to memorialize the Confederate war dead. Mary Ann Williams, the association secretary, was directed to pen a letter inviting ladies associations in every former Confederate state to join them in the observance.[8] Their invitation was written in March 1866 and sent to all of the principal cities in the former Confederacy, including Atlanta;[9] Macon;[10] Montgomery; Memphis; Richmond; St. Louis; Alexandria; Columbia;[11] and New Orleans, as well as smaller towns like Staunton, Virginia;[12] Anderson, South Carolina;[13] and Wilmington, North Carolina.[14] The actual date for the holiday was selected by Elizabeth Rutherford Ellis.[15] She chose April 26, the first anniversary of Confederate General Johnston's surrender to Union Major General Sherman at Bennett Place. For many in the Confederacy, that date in 1865 marked the end of the Civil War.[8]

In their book, The Genesis of the Memorial Day Holiday in America, Bellware and Gardiner assert that the national Memorial Day holiday is a direct offshoot of the observance begun by the Ladies Memorial Association of Columbus, Georgia in 1866. In a few places, most notably Columbus, Mississippi[16] and Macon, Georgia,[17] Union graves were decorated during the first observance. The day was even referred to as Memorial Day by The Baltimore Sun on May 8, 1866, after the ladies organization that started it. The name Confederate Memorial Day was not used until the Northern observance was initiated in 1868.[18]

While initially cool to the idea of a Northern version of the holiday, General John A. Logan was eventually won over as evidenced by his General Order No. 11 May 5, 1868, wherein he commanded the posts of Grand Army of the Republic to likewise strew flowers on the graves of Union soldiers. The Grand Army of the Republic eventually adopted the name Memorial Day at their national encampment in 1882.[19]

Many theories have been offered as to how Logan became aware of the former Confederate tradition he imitated in 1868. In her autobiography, his wife claims she told him about it after a trip to Virginia in the spring of that year.[20] His secretary and his adjutant also claim they told him about it. John Murray of Waterloo, New York, claims it was he who inspired Logan in 1868. Bellware and Gardiner, however, offer proof that Logan was aware of the Southern tributes long before any of them had a chance to mention it to him.[21] In a speech to veterans in Salem, Illinois, on July 4, 1866, Logan referred to the various dates of observance adopted in the South for the practice saying "…traitors in the South have their gatherings day after day, to strew garlands of flowers upon the graves of Rebel soldiers..."[22]

The first official celebration as a public holiday occurred in 1874, following a proclamation by the Georgia legislature.[23] By 1916, ten states celebrated it, on June 3, the birthday of CSA President Jefferson Davis.[23] Other states chose late April dates, or May 10, commemorating Davis' capture.[23]

Statutory holidays for state employees[edit]

Confederate Memorial Day is a statutory holiday in Alabama on the fourth Monday in April.[24][25] In Georgia, the fourth Monday in April was formerly celebrated as Confederate Memorial Day, but beginning in 2016, in response to the Charleston church shooting, the names of Confederate Memorial Day and Robert E. Lee's Birthday were struck from the state calendar and the statutory holidays were designated simply as "state holidays".[26]In Mississippi it is observed on the last Monday in April.[24][27] In South Carolina it is a legal holiday, observed on May 10.[28] In Texas it is called Confederate Heroes Day and held on January 19 each year. In Tennessee, Confederate Decoration Day is celebrated on June 3, the birthday of Jefferson Davis.[7]

See also[edit]References[edit]
  1. ^ Boyer, Paul S., ed. (2001). The Oxford Companion to United States History. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 132. ISBN 0-19-508209-5.
  2. ^ Woolf, Henry Bosley, ed. (1976). Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary. Springfield, Massachusetts: G. & C. Merriam Co. p. 236. ISBN 0-87779-338-7. OL 5207141M.
  3. ^ Fla. Stat. s. 683.01(1)(j),
  4. ^ "Code of Laws – Title 53 – Chapter 5 – Legal Holidays". www.scstatehouse.gov. Retrieved May 17, 2018.
  5. ^ "Confederate Memorial Day still recognized in Alabama and across the South". AL.com. Retrieved May 17, 2018.
  6. ^ "Alabama Code Title 1. General Provisions § 1-3-8 | FindLaw". Findlaw. Retrieved May 17, 2018.
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b Allison, Natalie (July 12, 2019). "Gov. Bill Lee Signs Nathan Bedford Forrest Day Proclamation, Is Not Considering Law Change." The Tennessean (Tennessean.com). Retrieved July 12, 2019.
  8. ^ Jump up to:a b Lucian Lamar Knight (1914). "Georgia's Landmarks, Memorials, and Legends ...: Under the code duello ..." Books.google.com. p. 156. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  9. ^ "The Soldiers' Graves". Digital Library of Georgia. Atlanta Intelligencer. March 21, 1866. p. 2. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
  10. ^ ""Woman's Honor to the Gallant Dead," Macon Telegraph, March 26, 1866, p. 5". Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
  11. ^ ""In Memory of the Confederate Dead," Daily Phoenix, Columbia, SC, April 4, 1866, p. 2". Library of Congress. Retrieved February 26, 2017.
  12. ^ ""The Southern Dead," Staunton Spectator, Staunton, VA, March 27, 1866 p.1". Library of Congress. Retrieved February 26, 2017.
  13. ^ ""The Southern Dead," Anderson Intelligencer, Anderson Court House, SC, March 29, 1866, p.1". Library of Congress. Retrieved February 26, 2017.
  14. ^ ""In Memory of the Confederate Dead," Wilmington Journal, Wilmington, NC, April 5, 1866, p.1". Library of Congress. Retrieved February 25, 2017.
  15. ^ "Lizzie Rutherford (1833–1873) | New Georgia Encyclopedia". Georgiaencyclopedia.org. 2004. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  16. ^ ""Confederate Soldiers' Dead," Louisiana Democrat, July 18, 1866". Library of Congress. July 18, 1866. Retrieved February 23, 2017.
  17. ^ "Will They Notice This Touching Tribute". Library of Congress. Columbus, OH: Ohio Statesman. May 4, 1866. p. 2. Retrieved February 23, 2017.
  18. ^ Bellware, Daniel (2014). The Genesis of the Memorial Day Holiday in America. Columbus, GA: Columbus State University. p. 87. ISBN 9780692292259.
  19. ^ Beath, Robert B. (1884). The Grand Army Blue-Book Containing the Rules and Regulations of the Grand Army of the Republic and Decisions and Opinions Thereon . Philadelphia: Grand Army of the Republic. p. 118. Retrieved February 25, 2017.
  20. ^ Logan, Mrs. John A. (1913). "Logan, Mrs. John A., Reminiscences of a Soldier's Wife, C. Scribner sons, 1913, p. 243". Google Books. Retrieved February 23, 2017.
  21. ^ Bellware, Daniel (2014). The Genesis of the Memorial Day Holiday in America. Columbus, GA: Columbus State University. p. 144. ISBN 9780692292259.
  22. ^ "Illinois – Gen. Logan on Reconstruction," New York Tribune July 14, 1866 p. 5". Library of Congress. July 14, 1866. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
  23. ^ Jump up to:a b c "Confederate Memorial Day in Georgia". GeorgiaInfo. University of Georgia. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  24. ^ Jump up to:a b "Confederate Memorial Day in the United States". time and date.com. Time and Date AS. n.d. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
  25. ^ "Confederate Memorial Day still recognized in Alabama and across the South". Alabama Media Group. The Associated Press. April 27, 2015.
  26. ^ "Why Monday is no longer Confederate Memorial Day in Georgia". April 23, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2020.
  27. ^ "Confederate Memorial Day". Sos.ms.gov. April 27, 2015. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  28. ^ Merelli, Annalisa (May 10, 2018). "What the controversial Confederate Memorial Day would be in other countries". Quartz.
Further reading[edit]
External links

 The Confederated States of America, is not a part of the 50 States in Union, they suceeded, and never have returned to this union of States in Friendship, Below tells who they are.