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Flags of the Confederate States of America
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This article is about historical uses of flags associated with the defunct Confederate States of America. For modern uses, see Modern display of the Confederate battle flag.

Three successive designs served as the official national flag of the Confederate States of America (the "Confederate States" or the "Confederacy") during its existence from 1861 to 1865. The flags were known as the "Stars and Bars", used from 1861 to 1863, the "Stainless Banner", used from 1863 to 1865, and the "Blood-Stained Banner", used in 1865 shortly before the Confederacy's dissolution. A rejected national flag design was also utilized as a battle flag by the Confederate army and featured in the "Stainless Banner" and "Blood-Stained Banner" designs. Although this design was never a national flag, it is commonly recognized as a symbol of the Confederacy.

Since the end of the American Civil War, private and official use of Confederacy's flags, particularly the battle flag, has continued amid philosophical, political, cultural, and racial controversy in the United States. These include flags displayed in states; cities, towns and counties; schools, colleges and universities; private organizations and associations; and by individuals.

The state flag of Mississippi features the Confederate army's battle flag in the canton, or upper left corner, the only current U.S. state flag to do so. The state flag of Georgia is very similar to the "Stars and Bars"; a prior design incorporating the Confederate battle flag was in use from 1956 until 2001.

First flag: the "Stars and Bars" (1861–1863)[edit]
  • First national flag with 7 stars
    (March 4 – May 21, 1861)

  • First national flag with 9 stars
    (May 21 – July 2, 1861)

  • First national flag with 11 stars
    (July 2 – November 28, 1861)

  • First national flag with 13 stars
    (December 10, 1861 – May 1, 1863)[14]

The first official national flag of the Confederacy, often called the Stars and Bars, flew from March 4, 1861, to May 1, 1863. It was designed by Prussian-American artist Nicola Marschall in Marion, Alabama, and resembled the Flag of Austria, with which Marschall would have been familiar.[15][16] The "Stars and Bars" flag was adopted March 4, 1861, in the first temporary national capital of Montgomery, Alabama, and raised over the dome of that first Confederate capitol. Marschall also designed the Confederate army uniform.[16]

A monument in Louisburg, North Carolina, claims the "Stars and Bars" "was designed by a son of North Carolina / Orren Randolph Smith / and made under his direction by / Catherine Rebecca (Murphy) Winborne. / Forwarded to Montgomery, Ala. Feb 12, 1861, / Adopted by the Provisional Congress March 4, 1861".[17]

A Confederate "Stars and Bars" flag, captured by soldiers of the Union Army at Columbia, South Carolina.

One of the first acts of the Provisional Confederate Congress was to create the Committee on the Flag and Seal, chaired by William Porcher Miles, a congressman and Fire-Eater from South Carolina. The committee asked the public to submit thoughts and ideas on the topic and was, as historian John M. Coski puts it, "overwhelmed by requests not to abandon the 'old flag' of the United States." Miles had already designed a flag that later became known as the Confederate Battle Flag, and he favored his flag over the "Stars and Bars" proposal. But given the popular support for a flag similar to the U.S. flag ("the Stars and Stripes" – originally established and designed in June 1777 during the Revolutionary War), the "Stars and Bars" design was approved by the committee.[18]

When the American Civil War broke out, the "Stars and Bars" caused confusion on the battlefield at the First Battle of Bull Run because of its similarity to the U.S. flag, especially when it was hanging limp, down on the flagstaff.[19] The "Stars and Bars" was also criticized on ideological grounds for its resemblance to the U.S. flag. Many Confederates disliked the Stars and Bars, seeing it as symbolic of a centralized federal power the Confederate states were seceding from.[20] As early as April 1861, a month after the flag's adoption, some were already criticizing the flag, calling it a "servile imitation" and a "detested parody" of the U.S. flag.[3] In January 1862, George William Bagby, writing for the Southern Literary Messenger, wrote that many Confederates disliked the flag. "Every body wants a new Confederate flag," Bagby wrote. "The present one is universally hated. It resembles the Yankee flag 9 WHICH IS THE ORIGINAL 50TH FLAG ACCEPTING HAWAII IN TO THE FRIENDSHIP UNION OF INDEPENDANT STATES TODAY,,and that is enough to make it unutterably detestable." The editor of the Charleston Mercury expressed a similar view: "It seems to be generally agreed that the 'Stars and Bars' will never do for us. They resemble too closely the dishonored 'Flag of Yankee Doodle' … we imagine that the 'Battle Flag' will become the Southern Flag by popular acclaim." William T. Thompson, the editor of the Savannah-based Daily Morning News also objected to the flag, due to its aesthetic similarity to the U.S. flag, which for some Confederates had negative associations with emancipation and abolitionism. Thompson stated in April 1863 that he disliked the adopted flag "on account of its resemblance to that of the abolition despotism against which we are fighting."[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]

Over the course of the flag's use by the Confederacy, additional stars were added to the flag's canton, eventually bringing the total number of stars on the flag to thirteen. This reflected the Confederacy's claims of having admitted Kentucky and Missouri into the Confederacy. Although they were represented in the Confederate Congress for the duration of its meetings, and had shadow governments made up of deposed former state politicians, neither state was ever fully controlled or administered by the Confederacy. The first showing of the 13-star flag was outside the Ben Johnson House in Bardstown, Kentucky; the 13-star design was also in use as the Confederate navy's battle ensign.

Second flag: the "Stainless Banner" (1863–1865)[edit]
  • Second national flag
    (May 1, 1863 – March 4, 1865),[14] 2:1 ratio

  • Second national flag, also used as the Confederate navy’s ensign, 3:2 ratio

  • A 12-star variant of the Stainless Banner produced in Mobile, Alabama

During the solicitation for a second Confederate national flag, many different types of designs were proposed, nearly all based on the battle flag, which by 1863 had become well-known and popular among those living in the Confederacy. The Confederate Congress specified that the new design be a white field "...with the union (now used as the battle flag) to be a square of two-thirds the width of the flag, having the ground red; thereupon a broad saltire of blue, bordered with white, and emblazoned with mullets or five-pointed stars, corresponding in number to that of the Confederate States."[21]

The flag is also known as the Stainless Banner, and the matter of the person behind its design remains a point of contention. On April 23, 1863, the Savannah Morning News editor William Tappan Thompson, with assistance from William Ross Postell, a Confederate blockade runner, published an editorial championing a design featuring the battle flag on a white background he referred to later as "The White Man's Flag."[6] In explaining the white background, Thompson wrote, "As a people we are fighting to maintain the Heaven-ordained supremacy of the white man over the inferior or colored race; a white flag would thus be emblematical of our cause."[1][2][3][4][7][8][9][10] In a letter to Confederate Congressman C. J. Villeré, dated April 24, 1863, a design similar to Thompson's was proposed by General P. G. T. Beauregard, "whose earlier penchant for practicality had established the precedent for visual distinctiveness on the battlefield, proposed that 'a good design for the national flag would be the present battle-flag as Union Jack, and the rest all white or all blue'....The final version of the second national flag, adopted May 1, 1863, did just this: it set the St. Andrew's Cross of stars in the Union Jack with the rest of the civilian banner entirely white."[22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29]

The Confederate Congress debated whether the white field should have a blue stripe and whether it should be bordered in red. William Miles delivered a speech supporting the simple white design that was eventually approved. He argued that the battle flag must be used, but for a national flag it was necessary to emblazon it, but as simply as possible, with a plain white field.[30] When Thompson received word the Congress had adopted the design with a blue stripe, he published an editorial on April 28 in opposition, writing that "the blue bar running up the centre of the white field and joining with the right lower arm of the blue cross, is in bad taste, and utterly destructive of the symmetry and harmony of the design."[1][5] Confederate Congressman Peter W. Gray proposed the amendment that gave the flag its white field.[31] Gray stated that the white field represented "purity, truth and freedom."[32]

Regardless of who truly originated the design of the Stainless Banner, whether by heeding Thompson's editorials or Beauregard's letter, the Stainless Banner was officially adopted by the Confederate Congress on May 1, 1863. The flags that were actually produced by the Richmond Clothing Depot used the 1.5:1 ratio adopted for the Confederate navy's battle ensign, rather than the official 2:1 ratio.[11]

Initial reaction to the second national flag was favorable, but over time it became criticized for being "too white." Military officers also voiced complaints about the flag being too white, for various reasons, such as the danger of being mistaken for a flag of truce, especially on naval ships, and that it was too easily soiled.[13] The Columbia-based Daily South Carolinian observed that it was essentially a battle flag upon a flag of truce and might send a mixed message. Due to the flag's resemblance to one of truce, some Confederate soldiers cut off the white portion of the flag, leaving only the canton.[33]

The first official use of the "Stainless Banner" was to drape the coffin of General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson as it lay in state in the Virginia capitol, May 12, 1863.[34] As a result of this first usage, the flag received the alternate nickname of the "Jackson Flag".

Third flag: the "Blood-Stained Banner" (1865)[edit]
  • Third national flag (after March 4, 1865)

  • Third national flag as commonly manufactured, with a square canton

The third national flag (also called the "Blood-Stained Banner") was adopted March 4, 1865. The red vertical bar was proposed by Major Arthur L. Rogers, who argued that the pure white field of the Second National flag could be mistaken as a flag of truce: when hanging limp in no wind, the flag's "Southern Cross" canton could accidentally stay hidden, so the flag could mistakenly appear all white.

Rogers lobbied successfully to have this alteration introduced in the Confederate Senate. He defended his redesign as having "as little as possible of the Yankee blue", and described it as symbolizing the primary origins of the people of the Confederacy, with the saltire of the Scottish flag and the red bar from the flag of France.[13]

The Flag Act of 1865, passed by the Confederate congress near the very end of the War, describes the flag in the following language:

The Congress of the Confederate States of America do enact, That the flag of the Confederate States shall be as follows: The width two-thirds of its length, with the union (now used as the battle flag) to be in width three-fifths of the width of the flag, and so proportioned as to leave the length of the field on the side of the union twice the width of the field below it; to have the ground red and a broad blue saltire thereon, bordered with white and emblazoned with mullets or five pointed stars, corresponding in number to that of the Confederate States; the field to be white, except the outer half from the union to be a red bar extending the width of the flag.[12]

Despite the passage of the Flag Act of 1865, very few of these third national flags were actually manufactured and put into use in the field, with many Confederates never seeing the flag. Moreover, the ones made by the Richmond Clothing Depot used the square canton of the second national flag rather than the slightly rectangular one that was specified by the law.[12]

Other flags[edit]

In addition to the national flags of the Confederacy, a wide variety of flags and banners were flown by Southerners during the Civil War. Most famously, the "Bonnie Blue Flag" was used as an unofficial flag during the early months of 1861. It was flying above the Confederate batteries that first opened fire on Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor, in South Carolina beginning the Civil War. The "Van Dorn battle flag" was also carried by Confederate troops fighting in the Trans-Mississippi and Western theaters of war. In addition, many military units had their own regimental flags they would carry into battle.[35]

Flags of individual Confederate states[edit][[PASTING TABLES IS NOT SUPPORTED]]Battle flag[edit]
Three versions of the flag of the Confederate States of America and the Confederate Battle Flag are shown on this printed poster from 1896. The "Stars and Bars" can be seen in the upper left. Standing at the center are Stonewall Jackson, P. G. T. Beauregard, and Robert E. Lee, surrounded by bust portraits of Jefferson Davis, Alexander Stephens, and various Confederate army officers, such as James Longstreet and A. P. Hill.
The Battle Flag of the Army of Northern Virginia
Battle flag of Forrest's Cavalry Corps, 1863–65
The battle flag used by the Army of the Trans-Mississippi
Cherokee Confederates reunion in New Orleans, 1903

At the First Battle of Manassas, near Manassas, Virginia, the similarity between the "Stars and Bars" and the "Stars and Stripes" caused confusion and military problems. Regiments carried flags to help commanders observe and assess battles in the warfare of the era. At a distance, the two national flags were hard to tell apart.[36] In addition, Confederate regiments carried many other flags, which added to the possibility of confusion.

After the battle, General P. G. T. Beauregard wrote that he was "resolved then to have [our flag] changed if possible, or to adopt for my command a 'Battle flag', which would be Entirely different from any State or Federal flag."[19] He turned to his aide, who happened to be William Porcher Miles, the former chairman of the Confederate Congress's Committee on the Flag and Seal. Miles described his rejected national flag design to Beauregard. Miles also told the Committee on the Flag and Seal about the general's complaints and request that the national flag be changed. The committee rejected the idea by a four-to-one vote, after which Beauregard proposed the idea of having two flags. He described the idea in a letter to his commanding General Joseph E. Johnston:

I wrote to [Miles] that we should have 'two' flags — a 'peace' or parade flag, and a 'war' flag to be used only on the field of battle — but congress having adjourned no action will be taken on the matter — How would it do us to address the War Dept. on the subject of Regimental or badge flags made of red with two blue bars crossing each other diagonally on which shall be introduced the stars, ... We would then on the field of battle know our friends from our Enemies.[19]

The flag that Miles had favored when he was chairman of the "Committee on the Flag and Seal" eventually became the battle flag and, ultimately, the most popular flag of the Confederacy. According to Museum of the Confederacy Director John Coski, Miles' design was inspired by one of the many "secessionist flags" flown at the South Carolina secession convention in Charleston of December 1860. That flag was a blue St George's Cross (an upright or Latin cross) on a red field, with 15 white stars on the cross, representing the slave-holding states,[37][38] and, on the red field, palmetto and crescent symbols. Miles received a variety of feedback on this design, including a critique from Charles Moise, a self-described "Southerner of Jewish persuasion." Moise liked the design but asked that "... the symbol of a particular religion not be made the symbol of the nation." Taking this into account, Miles changed his flag, removing the palmetto and crescent, and substituting a heraldic saltire ("X") for the upright cross. The number of stars was changed several times as well. He described these changes and his reasons for making them in early 1861. The diagonal cross was preferable, he wrote, because "it avoided the religious objection about the cross (from the Jews and many Protestant sects), because it did not stand out so conspicuously as if the cross had been placed upright thus." He also argued that the diagonal cross was "more Heraldric [sic] than Ecclesiastical, it being the 'saltire' of Heraldry, and significant of strength and progress."[39]

According to Coski, the Saint Andrew's Cross (also used on the flag of Scotland as a white saltire on a blue field) had no special place in Southern iconography at the time, and if Miles had not been eager to conciliate the Southern Jews, his flag would have used the traditional upright "Saint George's Cross" (as used on the flag of England, a red cross on a white field). A colonel named James B. Walton submitted a battle flag design essentially identical to Miles' except with an upright Saint George's cross, but Beauregard chose the diagonal cross design.[40]

Miles' flag and all the flag designs up to that point were rectangular ("oblong") in shape. General Johnston suggested making it square to conserve material. Johnston also specified the various sizes to be used by different types of military units. Generals Beauregard and Johnston and Quartermaster General Cabell approved the design of the 12-star Confederate Battle Flag at the Ratcliffe home, which served briefly as Beauregard's headquarters, near Fairfax Court House in September 1861. The 12th star represented Missouri. President Jefferson Davis arrived by train at Fairfax Station soon after and was shown the design for the new battle flag at the Ratcliffe House. Hetty Cary and her sister and cousin made prototypes. One such 12-star flag resides in the collection of Richmond's Museum of the Confederacy and the other is in the Confederate Memorial Hall Museum in New Orleans.

On November 28, 1861, Confederate soldiers in General Robert E. Lee's newly reorganized Army of Northern Virginia received the new battle flags in ceremonies at Centreville and Manassas, Virginia, and carried them throughout the Civil War. Beauregard gave a speech encouraging the soldiers to treat the new flag with honor and that it must never be surrendered. Many soldiers wrote home about the ceremony and the impression the flag had upon them, the "fighting colors" boosting morale after the confusion at the Battle of First Manassas. From then on, the battle flag grew in its identification with the Confederacy and the South in general.[41] The flag's stars represented the number of states in the Confederacy. The distance between the stars decreased as the number of states increased, reaching thirteen when the secessionist factions of Kentucky and Missouri joined in late 1861.[42]

The Army of Northern Virginia battle flag assumed a prominent place post-war when it was adopted as the copyrighted emblem of the United Confederate Veterans. Its continued use by the Southern Army's post-war veterans groups, the United Confederate Veterans (U.C.V.) and the later Sons of Confederate Veterans, (S.C.V.), and elements of the design by related similar female descendants organizations of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, (U.D.C.), led to the assumption that it was, as it has been termed, "the soldier's flag" or "the Confederate battle flag".

The square "battle flag" is also properly known as "the flag of the Army of Northern Virginia". It was sometimes called "Beauregard's flag" or "the Virginia battle flag". A Virginia Department of Historic Resources marker declaring Fairfax, Virginia as the birthplace of the Confederate battle flag was dedicated on April 12, 2008, near the intersection of Main and Oak Streets, in Fairfax, Virginia.[43][44][45]

Naval jacks and ensigns[edit]

The fledgling Confederate States Navy adopted and used several types of flags, banners, and pennants aboard all CSN ships: jacks, battle ensigns, and small boat ensigns, as well as commissioning pennants, designating flags, and signal flags.[citation needed]

The First Confederate Navy jacks, in use from 1861 to 1863, consisted of a circle of seven to fifteen five-pointed white stars against a field of "medium blue." It was flown forward aboard all Confederate warships while they were anchored in port. One seven-star jack still exists today (found aboard the captured ironclad CSS Atlanta) that is actually "dark blue" in color (see illustration below, left).[46]

The Second Confederate Navy Jack was a rectangular cousin of the Confederate Army's battle flag and was in use from 1863 until 1865. It existed in a variety of dimensions and sizes, despite the CSN's detailed naval regulations. The blue color of the diagonal saltire's "Southern Cross" was much lighter than the dark blue of the battle flag.[46]

  • The First Confederate Navy Jack, 1861–1863

  • The First Confederate Navy Ensign, 1861–1863

  • The Second Confederate Navy Jack, 1863–1865

  • The Second Confederate Navy Ensign, 1863–1865

  • The Second Navy Ensign of the ironclad CSS Atlanta

  • The 9-star First Naval Ensign of the paddle steamer CSS Curlew

  • The 11-star Ensign of the Confederate Privateer Jefferson Davis

  • A 12-star First Confederate Navy Ensign of the gunboat CSS Ellis, 1861-1862

  • The Command flag of Captain William F. Lynch, flown as ensign of his flagship, CSS Seabird, 1862

  • Pennant of Admiral Franklin Buchanan, CSS Tennessee, at Battle of Mobile Bay, 5th of August, 1864

  • Digital recreation of Admiral Buchanan's pennant

  • Admiral's Rank flag of Franklin Buchanan, also flown from the CSS Tennessee during the battle of Mobile Bay

  • Confederate naval flag, captured when General William Sherman took Savannah, Georgia, 1864

The first national flag, also known as the Stars and Bars (see above), served from 1861 to 1863 as the Confederate Navy's first battle ensign. It was generally made with an aspect ratio of 2:3, but a few very wide 1:2 ratio ensigns still survive today in museums and private collections. As the Confederacy grew, so did the numbers of white stars seen on the ensign's dark blue canton: seven-, nine-, eleven-, and thirteen-star groupings were typical. Even a few fourteen- and fifteen-starred ensigns were made to include states that were expected to secede but never completely joined the Confederacy.[citation needed]

The second national flag was later adapted as a naval ensign, using a shorter 2:3 ratio than the 1:2 ratio adopted by the Confederate Congress for the national flag. This particular battle ensign was the only example taken around the world, finally becoming the last Confederate flag lowered in the Civil War; this happened aboard CSS Shenandoah in Liverpool, England on November 7, 1865.

Controversy[edit]
For use of Confederate symbols in modern society and popular culture, see Modern display of the Confederate flag.
An elongated version of the Battle Flag of the Army of Tennessee, and similar to The Second Confederate Navy Jack, in use from 1863 until 1865, although with the darker blue field of the Army's battle flag.

Despite never having historically represented the Confederate States of America as a country, nor having been officially recognized as one of its national flags, the rectangular Battle Flag of the Army of Northern Virginia and its variants are now flag types commonly referred to as the Confederate Flag. This design has become a widely recognized symbol of the Southern United States[47] and is also known as the rebel flag, Dixie flag, and Southern cross.[48] It is sometimes incorrectly referred to as the Stars and Bars, the name of the first national Confederate flag.[49]

The "rebel flag" is a highly divisive and polarizing symbol in the United States.[50][51] Some associate it with racism and white supremacy.[52][53]

Gallery[edit]See also[edit]Notes[edit]
  1. ^ William Tappan Thompson, editor of Savannah's Daily Morning News, used a different nickname for the flag, calling it "The White Man's Flag," saying that the flag's white field symbolized the "supremacy of the white man." But it was a nickname that never gained traction with the public.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]
  2. ^ Although the officially specified proportions were 1:2, many of the flags that actually ended up being produced used a 1.5:1 aspect ratio.[11]
  3. ^ Although the officially designated design specified a rectangular canton, many of the flags that ended up being produced utilized a square-shaped canton.[12]
References[edit]
  1. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Preble 1872, pp. 414–417
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b c Preble 1880, pp. 523–525
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Coski, John M. (May 13, 2013). "The Birth of the 'Stainless Banner'". The New York Times. New York: The New York Times Company. Archived from the original on November 7, 2019. Retrieved January 27, 2014. A handful of contemporaries linked the new flag design to the "peculiar institution" that was at the heart of the South's economy, social system and polity: slavery. Bagby characterized the flag motif as the "Southern Cross" – the constellation, not a religious symbol – and hailed it for pointing 'the destiny of the Southern master and his African slave' southward to 'the banks of the Amazon,' a reference to the desire among many Southerners to expand Confederate territory into Latin America. In contrast, the editor of the Savannah, Ga., Morning News focused on the white field on which the Southern Cross was emblazoned. "As a people, we are fighting to maintain the heaven-ordained supremacy of the white man over the inferior or colored races. A White Flag would be thus emblematical of our cause." He dubbed the new flag "the White Man's Flag," a sobriquet that never gained traction.
  4. ^ Jump up to:a b c Thompson, William T. (April 23, 1863). "Daily Morning News". Savannah, Georgia.
  5. ^ Jump up to:a b c Thompson, William T. (April 28, 1863). "Daily Morning News". Savannah, Georgia.
  6. ^ Jump up to:a b c Thompson, William T. (May 4, 1863). "Daily Morning News". Savannah, Georgia.
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b c Loewen, James W.; Sebesta, Edward H. (2010). The Confederate and Neo Confederate Reader: The Great Truth about the 'Lost Cause'. Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-60473-219-1. OCLC 746462600. Archived from the original on December 13, 2013. Retrieved December 5, 2013. Confederates even showed their preoccupation with race in their flag. Civil War buffs know that 'the Confederate flag' waved today was never the official flag of the Confederate States of America. Rather, it was the flag of the Army of Northern Virginia. During the war, the Confederacy adopted three official flags. The first, sometimes called 'the Stars and Bars,' drew many objections 'on account of its resemblance to that of the abolition despotism against which we are fighting,' in the words of the editor of the Savannah Morning News, quoted herein.
  8. ^ Jump up to:a b Kim, Kyle; Krishnakumar, Priya. "What you should know about the Confederate flag's evolution". Los Angeles Times(June 23, 2015). California. Archived from the original on July 12, 2015. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  9. ^ Jump up to:a b Wood, Marie Stevens Walker (1957). Stevens-Davis and allied families: a memorial volume of history, biography, and genealogy. p. 44. Retrieved September 1, 2015. This design was suggested by William T. Thompson, editor of the Savannah (Ga.) Morning News, who, in an editorial published April 23, 1863, stated that through this design could be attained all the...
  10. ^ Jump up to:a b Allen, Frederick (May 25, 1996). Atlanta Rising: The Invention of an International City 1946–1996. p. 67. ISBN 9781461661672. Retrieved September 1, 2015. By modern standards, the greatest flaw of the 'Stainless Banner' was its other popular nickname, bestowed by William T. Thompson, editor of the Savannah Daily Morning News, who called it 'the White Man's Flag' and argued that it represented 'the cause of a superior race and a higher civilization contending against ignorance, infidelity, and barbarism' – a bit of racist rhetoric that is plainly unacceptable in current public discourse.
  11. ^ Jump up to:a b "The Second Confederate National Flag (Flags of the Confederacy)". Archived from the original on February 9, 2009. Retrieved October 24, 2005.
  12. ^ Jump up to:a b c "The Third Confederate National Flag (Flags of the Confederacy)". Archived from the original on January 30, 2009. Retrieved July 29, 2007.
  13. ^ Jump up to:a b c Coski 2005, pp. 17–18
  14. ^ Jump up to:a b "Confederate States of America government". Retrieved October 7, 2014.
  15. ^ "Nicola Marschall". The Encyclopedia of Alabama. April 25, 2011. Retrieved July 29, 2011. The flag does resemble that of the Germanic European nation of Austria, which as a Prussian artist, Marschall would have known well.
  16. ^ Jump up to:a b Hume, Edgar Erskine (August 1940). "Nicola Marschall: Excerpts from "The German Artist Who Designed the Confederate Flag and Uniform"". The American-German Review. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
  17. ^ Commemorative Landscapes of North Carolina. "First Confederate Flag and Its Designer O.R. Smith, Louisburg". Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
  18. ^ Coski 2005, pp. 4–5
  19. ^ Jump up to:a b c Coski 2005, p. 8
  20. ^ "The Declarations of Causes of Seceding States". Civil War Trust. Retrieved February 23, 2016. Our position is thoroughly identified with the institution of slavery—the greatest material interest of the world. Its labor supplies the product which constitutes by far the largest and most important portions of commerce of the earth. These products are peculiar to the climate verging on the tropical regions, and by an imperious law of nature, none but the black race can bear exposure to the tropical sun. These products have become necessities of the world, and a blow at slavery is a blow at commerce and civilization. That blow has been long aimed at the institution, and was at the point of reaching its consummation. There was no choice left us but submission to the mandates of abolition, or a dissolution of the Union, whose principles had been subverted to work out our ruin. That we do not overstate the dangers to our institution, a reference to a few facts will sufficiently prove.
  21. ^ Coski & The Second Confederate National Flag, Flags of the Confederacy
  22. ^ Bonner, Robert E., "Flag Culture and the Consolidation of Confederate Nationalism." Journal of Southern History, Vol. 68, No. 2 (May 2002), 318–319.
  23. ^ Coski, John M. (2005). The Confederate Battle Flag: America's Most Embattled Emblem. p. 16. ISBN 9780674029866.
  24. ^ Townsend, Edward D. (August 25, 2017). Saving the Union: My Days with Lincoln and Stanton (Annotated).
  25. ^ William Parker Snow, Lee and His Generals (1867), p.260 [1].
  26. ^ "Gen. Beauregard suggested the flag just adopted, or else a field of blue in place of the white." -"Letter from Richmond" by the Richmond correspondent of the Charleston Mercury, May 5, 1863, p.1, c.1.
  27. ^ John M. Coski, "The Birth of the Stainless Banner," New York Times Opinionator, (May 13, 2013). "Some congressmen and newspaper editors favored making the Army of Northern Virginia battle flag (in a rectangular shape) itself the new national flag. But Beauregard and others felt the nation needed its own distinctive symbol, and so recommended that the Southern Cross be emblazoned in the corner of a white field."
  28. ^ Martinez, J. Michael; Richardson, William D.; McNinch-Su, Ron (2000). Confederate Symbols in the Contemporary South. University Press of Florida. p. 98. ISBN 9780813017587.
  29. ^ "Letter of Beauregard to Villere ,April 24, 1863". Daily Dispatch. Richmond, VA. May 13, 1863.
  30. ^ Coski 2005, pp. 16–17
  31. ^ Journal of the Confederate Congress, Volume 6, p.477
  32. ^ Richmond Whig, May 5, 1863
  33. ^ Coski 2005, p. 18
  34. ^ John D. Wright, The Language of the Civil War, p.284; John M. Coski, The Confederate Battle Flag: America's Most Embattled Emblem (2005), p. 17.
  35. ^ North & South – The Official Magazine of the Civil War Society, Volume 11, Number 2, Page 30, Retrieved April 16, 2010, "The Stars and Bars" Archived July 14, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ Gevinson, Alan. "The Reason Behind the 'Stars and Bars". Teachinghistory.org. Retrieved October 8, 2011.
  37. ^ Coski, John M. (2009). The Confederate Battle Flag. Harvard University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-674-02986-6. Retrieved November 24, 2016.
  38. ^ Coski 2005, p. 5
  39. ^ Coski 2005, p. 5: "describes the 15 stars and the debate on religious symbolism."
  40. ^ Coski 2005, pp. 6–8
  41. ^ Coski 2005, p. 10
  42. ^ Coski 2005, p. 11
  43. ^ "Birthplace of the Confederate Battle Flag". The Historical Marker Database.
  44. ^ 37 New Historical Markers for Virginia's Roadways (PDF)(Report). Notes on Virginia. Virginia Department of Historic Resources. 2008. p. 71. B-261: Birthplace of the Confederate Battle Flag
  45. ^ "2008 Virginia Marker Dedication: Birthplace of the Confederate Battle Flag". FairfaxRifles.org. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  46. ^ Jump up to:a b Loeser, Pete. "American Civil War Flags". Historical Flags of Our Ancestors. Retrieved July 22, 2019.
  47. ^ Chapman, Roger (2011). Culture Wars: An Encyclopedia of Issues, Viewpoints, and Voices. M.E. Sharpe. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-7656-2250-1. Retrieved February 21, 2013.
  48. ^ Leonard, Ian (June 21, 2015). "What is the Confederate flag and what does it stand for?". Daily Mirror. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
  49. ^ Coski 2005, pp. 58
  50. ^ Little, Becky (June 26, 2015). "Why the Confederate Flag Made a 20th Century Comeback". National Geographic. National Geographic. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
  51. ^ The Associated Press (July 10, 2015). "Confederate flag removed: A history of the divisive symbol". Oregon Live.
  52. ^ "Confederate Flag". Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  53. ^ McWhorter, Diane (April 3, 2005). "'The Confederate Battle Flag': Clashing Symbols". The New York Times. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
Bibliography[edit][[PASTING TABLES IS NOT SUPPORTED]]Further reading

           History in review

This is not who we are today, we are a union of many nations, under God, serving one Creator of the Universe.
We all have history, and no one should have a right to destroy it, because it was, and is the stepping stones for our all heritage, be it good or bad.


Native Americans in the American Civil War

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Ely S. Parker was a Union Civil War Colonel who wrote the terms of surrender between the United States and the Confederate States of America.[1] Parker was one of two Native Americans to reach the rank of brigadier general during the Civil War.

Native Americans in the American Civil War participated as individuals, bands, tribes, and nations in numerous skirmishes and battles.[2] Native Americans served in both the Union and Confederate military during the American Civil War. They were found in the Eastern, Western, and Trans-Mississippi Theaters. At the outbreak of the war, for example, most Cherokees sided with the Union, but they soon allied with the Confederacy.[3] Native Americans fought knowing they might jeopardize their sovereignty, unique cultures, and ancestral lands if they ended up on the losing side of the Civil War.[2][3] 28,693 Native Americans served in the Union and Confederate armies during the Civil War, participating in battles such as Pea Ridge, Second Manassas, Antietam, Spotsylvania, Cold Harbor, and in Federal assaults on Petersburg.[2][4]

Overview[edit]

Many Native American tribes fought for either side in the war including: the Delaware, Catawba, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Huron, Iroquois Confederacy, Kickapoo, Lumbee, Odawa, Ojibwe (Chippewa), Osage, Pamunkey, Pequot, Powhatan, Potawatomi, Seminole and Shawnee. Like other American communities, some tribes had members fighting on both sides of the war.[5]

During November 1861, the Creek, Black Creek Indians, and White Creek Indians of their tribe were led by Creek Chief Opothleyahola, fought three pitched battles (Battle of Round Mountain),[6] and the Battle of Chusto-Talasah[7] and the Battle of Chustenahlah [8] against Confederate troops and other Native Americans that joined the Confederates to reach Union lines in Kansas, and offer their services.[9]

Some Civil War battles occurred in Indian Territory.[10] The First Battle of Cabin Creek occurred July 1–2, 1863, along the Grand River in modern-day Mayes County, Oklahoma which involved the 1st Kansas Colored Infantry.[10] The Confederate force was led by General Stand Watie. A second battle was fought near the same location on September 19, 1864. This time the Union forces under Major Henry M. Hopkins were defeated by a Confederate force under Brigadier Generals Richard Gano and Stand Watie. This was the last major battle of the Civil War in Indian Territory.[11]

The Delaware demonstrated their "loyalty, daring and hardihood" during the attack of the Wichita Agency, or the Tonkawa Massacre in October 1862. A minor skirmish, Union Native Americans attacked Confederate Native Americans, and also killed five Confederate agents, took the Rebel flag and $1200 in Confederate currency, 100 ponies, and burned correspondence along with the Agency buildings.[2]

The Cherokee Nation had an internal civil war.[2] The Nation divided, with one side led by Principal Chief John Ross and the other by renegade Stand Watie.[2] Chief John Ross wanted to remain neutral throughout the war, but Confederate victories at First Manassas and Wilson's Creek forced the Cherokee to reassess their position.[2][5]

Stand Watie, along with many Cherokee, sided with the Confederate Army, in which he was made Colonel and commanded a battalion of Cherokee.[2] Reluctantly, on October 7, 1861, Chief Ross signed a treaty transferring all obligations due to the Cherokee from the U.S. Government to the Confederate States.[2] In the treaty, the Cherokee were guaranteed protection, rations of food, livestock, tools and other goods, as well as a delegate to the Confederate Congress at Richmond.[2] In exchange, the Cherokee would furnish ten companies of mounted men, and allow the construction of military posts and roads within the Cherokee Nation. However, no Indian regiment was to be called on to fight outside Indian Territory.[2] As a result of the Treaty, the 2nd Cherokee Mounted Rifles, led by Col. John Drew, was formed. Following the Battle of Pea Ridge, Arkansas, March 7–8, 1862, Drew's Mounted Rifles defected to the Union forces in Kansas, where they joined the Indian Home Guard. In the summer of 1862, Federal troops captured Chief Ross, who was paroled and spent the remainder of the war in Washington and Philadelphia proclaiming Cherokee loyalty to the Union army.[2]

In his absence, Col. Stand Watie was chosen principal chief of the Cherokee Nation. He immediately drafted all Cherokee males aged 18–50 into Confederate military service.[2] Watie was a daring cavalry rider who was skilled at hit-and-run tactics. He was considered a genius in guerrilla warfare and the most successful field commander in the Trans-Mississippi West.[2] Promoted to brigadier general in May 1864, Watie was placed in charge of the Indian Cavalry Brigade, which was composed of the 1st and 2nd Cherokee Cavalry and battalions of Creek, Osage and Seminole. He achieved one of his more notable raids in the ambush of the steamboat J.R. Williams, which was bound for Fort Gibson. at Pleasant Bluff on the Arkansas River, near the present-day town of Tamaha, Oklahoma, on June 10, 1864, capturing the steamboat and its supplies, valued at $120,000. At the Second Battle of Cabin Creek (Indian Territory), Watie's cavalry brigade captured 129 supply wagons and 740 mules, took 120 prisoners, and left 200 casualties.[2]

The Cherokee who had not been removed were also caught in the middle of the Civil War. Some chose to side with the Confederate Army since they were located in the southern states.[2] The Thomas Legion, an Eastern Band of Confederate Cherokee, led by Col. William Holland Thomas, fought in the mountains of Tennessee and North Carolina.[2] Another 200 Cherokee formed the Junaluska Zouaves.[2] Nearly all Catawba adult males served the South in the 5th, 12th and 17th South Carolina Volunteer Infantry, Army of Northern Virginia. They distinguished themselves in the Peninsula Campaign, at Second Manassas, and Antietam, and in the trenches at Petersburg. A monument in Columbia, South Carolina, honors the Catawbas' service in the Civil War.[2] As a consequence of the regiments' high rate of dead and wounded, the continued existence of the Catawba people was jeopardized.[2]

Company K of the 1st Michigan Sharpshooters resting

In Virginia and North Carolina, the Pamunkey and Lumbee chose to serve the Union.[2] The Pamunkey served as civilian and naval pilots for Union warships and transports, while the Lumbee acted as guerrillas.[2] Members of the Iroquois Confederacy joined Company K, 5th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, while the Powhatan served as land guides, river pilots, and spies for the Army of the Potomac.[2]

During the Civil War, there was no distinction made when a Native American joined the U.S. Colored Troops. Well into the twentieth century, the word "colored" included not only African Americans, but Native Americans as well.[2] Individual accounts revealed that many Pequot from New England served in the 31st U.S. Colored Infantry of the Army of the Potomac, as well as other U.S.C.T. regiments.[2]

The most famous Native American unit in the Union army in the east was Company K of the 1st Michigan Sharpshooters.[2] The bulk of this unit was Ottawa, Delaware, Huron, Oneida, Potawami and Ojibwe.[2] They were assigned to the Army of the Potomac just as Gen. Ulysses S. Grant assumed command. Company K participated in the Battle of the Wilderness and Spotsylvania, and captured 600 Confederate troops at Shand House east of Petersburg.[2] In their final military engagement at the Battle of the Crater, Petersburg, Virginia, on July 30, 1864, the Sharpshooters found themselves surrounded with little ammunition.[2] A lieutenant of the 13th United States Colored Infantry quoted their actions as:

[S]plendid work. Some of them were mortally wounded, and drawing their blouses over their faces, they chanted a death song and died – four of them in a group.[2]

General Ely S. Parker, a member of the Seneca tribe, created the articles of surrender which General Robert E. Lee signed at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865. Gen. Parker, who served as Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's military secretary and was a trained attorney, was once rejected for Union military service because of his race. At Appomattox, Lee is said to have remarked to Parker, "I am glad to see one real American here", to which Parker replied, "We are all Americans."[2]

The Cherokee Nation was the most negatively affected of all Native American tribes during the Civil War, its population declining from 21,000 to 15,000 by 1865. Despite the Federal government's promise to pardon all Cherokee involved with the Confederacy, the entire Nation was considered disloyal, and their rights were revoked. At the end of the war, Gen. Stand Watie was the last Confederate general to surrender, laying down arms two months after Gen. Robert E. Lee, and a month after Gen. E. Kirby Smith, commander of all troops west of the Mississippi.[2]

Problems in the Midwest and West[edit]
The first photographic image of Lincoln as president

The west was mostly peaceful during the war due to the lack of U.S. occupation troops. The federal government was still taking control of native land, and there were continuous fights.[3] From January to May 1863, there were almost continuous fights in the New Mexico territory, as part of a concerted effort by the Federal government to contain and control the Apache; in the midst of all this, President Abraham Lincoln met with representatives from several major tribes, and informed them he felt concerned they would never attain the prosperity of the white race unless they turned to farming as a way of life.[2] The fighting led to the Sand Creek Massacre caused by Colonel J. M. Chivington, of the Colorado Territorial Militia, whom settlers asked to retaliate against natives.[3] With 900 volunteer militiamen, Chivington attacked a peaceful village of some 500 or more Arapaho and Cheyenne natives, killing women and children as well as warriors.[3] There were few survivors of the massacre.[3]

In July 1862, settlers fought against Santee Sioux in Minnesota.[3][12] Because the war absorbed so many government resources, the annuities owed to the Santee Sioux in Minnesota were not paid on time in the summer of 1862.[12] In addition, Long Trader Sibley refused the Santee Sioux access to food until the funds were delivered. In frustration, the Santee Sioux, led by Little Crow (Ta-oya-te-duta), attacked settlers in order to get supplies.[12] The Sioux killed 450–800 civilians.[13] After the Sioux lost, they were tried (without defense lawyers) and many were sentenced to death.[12]

When President Lincoln found out about the incident, he immediately requested full information about the convictions. He assigned two attorneys to examine the cases and differentiate between those guilty of murder and those who simply engaged in battle.[12] General Pope, as well as Long Trader Sibley, whose refusal to allow the Sioux access to food had been largely responsible for the war, were angered by Lincoln's failure to immediately authorize the executions.[12] They threatened that the local settlers would take action against the Sioux unless the President allowed the executions, and they quickly tried to push forward with them.[12] In addition, they arrested the rest of the Santee Sioux, 1,700 people, of whom most were women and children, although they were accused of no crime.

On December 6, 1861, based on information he was given, Lincoln authorized the execution of 39 Sioux, and ordered that the others be held pending further orders, "taking care that they neither escape nor are subjected to any unlawful violence."[12] On December 26, 39 men were taken. At the last minute, one was given a reprieve. It was not until years later that information became public that two men were executed who had not been authorized for punishment by President Lincoln.[12] In fact, one of these two men had saved a white woman's life during the fighting.[12] Little Crow was then murdered in July 1863, the year in which the Santees were transported to a reservation in Dakota Territory.[12]

Native Americans in the Confederate Army[edit]
At the beginning of the American Civil War, Pike was appointed as Confederate envoy to the Native Americans.

Native Americans served in both the Union and Confederate military during the American Civil War.[2][4] Many of the tribes viewed the Confederacy as the better choice due to its opposition to a central federal system which lacked a respect for the sovereignty of Indian nations. In addition, some Native American tribes, such as the Creek and the Choctaw, were slaveholders and found a political and economic commonality with the Confederacy.[14]

Sir: To enable the Secretary of War most advantageously to perform the duties devolved upon him in relation to the Indian tribes by the second section of the Act to establish the War Department of February 21, 1861, it is deemed desirable that there should be established a Bureau of Indian Affairs, and, if the Congress concur in this view, I have the honor respectfully to recommend that provision be made for the appointment of a Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and for one clerk to aid him in the discharge of his official duties.

— Jefferson Davis to Howell Cobb, Confederate States of America – Message to Congress, March 1861[15]

At the beginning of the war, Albert Pike was appointed as Confederate envoy to Native Americans. In this capacity he negotiated several treaties, one such treaty was the Treaty with Choctaws and Chickasaws conducted in July 1861. The treaty covered sixty-four terms covering many subjects like Choctaw and Chickasaw nation sovereignty, Confederate States of America citizenship possibilities, and an entitled delegate in the House of Representatives of the Confederate States of America. The Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole, Catawba, and Creek tribes were the only tribes to fight on the Confederate side.

Cherokee[edit]Cherokee in the Trans Mississippi Theater[edit]

Stand Watie, along with many Cherokee, sided with the Confederate Army, in which he was made colonel and commanded a battalion of Cherokee.[2] Reluctantly, on October 7, 1861, Chief Ross signed a treaty transferring all obligations due to the Cherokee from the U.S. Government to the Confederate States.[2] In the treaty, the Cherokee were guaranteed protection, rations of food, livestock, tools and other goods, as well as a delegate to the Confederate Congress at Richmond.[2] In exchange, the Cherokee would furnish ten companies of mounted men, and allow the construction of military posts and roads within the Cherokee Nation. However, no Indian regiment was to be called on to fight outside Indian Territory.[2] As a result of the treaty, the 2nd Cherokee Mounted Rifles, led by Col. John Drew, was formed. Following the Battle of Pea Ridge, Arkansas, March 7–8, 1862, Drew's Mounted Rifles defected to the Union forces in Kansas, where they joined the Indian Home Guard. In the summer of 1862, Federal troops captured Chief Ross, who was paroled and spent the remainder of the war in Washington and Philadelphia proclaiming Cherokee loyalty to the Union army.[2]

North Carolina Cherokee in the Western Theater[edit]

William Holland Thomas, the only white chief of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, recruited hundreds of Cherokees for the Confederacy, particularly for Thomas' Legion. The Legion, raised in September 1862, fought until the end of the war.

Choctaw[edit]

Choctaw Confederate battalions were formed in Indian Territory and later in Mississippi in support of the southern cause.

Choctaw in the Trans Mississippi Theater[edit]
Jackson McCurtain, lieutenant colonel of the First Choctaw Battalion in Oklahoma, CSA.

The Choctaws, who were expecting support from the Confederates, got little. Webb Garrison, a Civil War historian, describes their response: when Confederate Brigadier General Albert Pike authorized the raising of regiments during the fall of 1860, Creeks, Choctaws, and Cherokees responded with considerable enthusiasm. Their zeal for the Confederate cause, however, began to evaporate when they found that neither arms nor pay had been arranged for them. A disgusted officer later acknowledged that "with the exception of a partial supply for the Choctaw regiment, no tents, clothing, or camp and garrison equippage was furnished to any of them."[16]

Albert Pike negotiated several treaties with Native American tribes, including the Treaty with Choctaws and Chickasaws in July 1861. The treaty covered sixty-four terms, covering many subjects like Choctaw and Chickasaw nation sovereignty, Confederate States of America citizenship possibilities, and an entitled delegate in the House of Representatives of the Confederate States of America.[17]

Up to this time, our protection was in the United States troops stationed at Fort Washita, under the command of Colonel Emory. But he, as soon as the Confederate troops had entered our country, at once abandoned us and the Fort; and, to make his flight more expeditious and his escape more sure, employed Black Beaver, a Shawnee Indian, under a promise to him of five thousand dollars, to pilot him and his troops out of the Indian country safely without a collision with the Texas Confederates; which Black Beaver accomplished. By this act the United States abandoned the Choctaws and Chickasaws.

[...]

Then, there being no other alternative by which to save their country and property, they, as the less of the two evils that confronted them, went with the Southern Confederacy.

— Julius Folsom, September 5, 1891, letter to H. B. Cushman

In Choctaw Nation in Indian Territory, Jackson McCurtain, who would later become a district chief, was elected as representative from Sugar Loaf County to the National Council in October 1859. On June 22, 1861, he enlisted in the First Regiment of Choctaw and Chickasaw Mounted Rifles. He was commissioned captain of Company G under the command of Colonel Douglas H. Cooper of the Confederate Army. In 1862 he became a lieutenant colonel of the First Choctaw Battalion.[18] The Choctaw probably owned over 2,000 slaves.[19]

Mississippi Choctaw in the Western Theater[edit]

In 1862, John W. Pierce created and financed his 1st Choctaw Battalion.[20] The battalion was headquartered at Newton Station, Mississippi in the early part of 1863. They were sent to rescue and assist surviving train crash victims on the Chunky Creek/River on February 19, 1863. After their rescue efforts, the Indian battalion tracked deserters in central Mississippi. When a massive federal expedition (out of New Orleans) was sent to Ponchatoula, Louisiana, the 1st Choctaw Battalion was sent as reinforcement for the Battle of Ponchatoula. The 1st Choctaw Battalion, identified as "Indian troops," was given credit for pushing back the "yankees" in southern newspapers. Not long after the battle, over half of the Choctaw soldiers deserted the battalion. After their desertion, Brigadier General John Adams recommended that the battalion be disbanded. On May 9, 1863, the 1st Choctaw Battalion was disbanded.

However, a number of 1st Choctaw Battalion members remained. Another federal expedition (once again out of New Orleans) surprised the 1st Choctaw Battalion remnant. Some were captured just north of Ponchatoula. Fourteen Indian prisoners were sent to New York.[21] They were incarcerated at Castle Williams during the entire summer of 1863. On occasion, the prisoners were showcased as entertainment for New Yorkers. Two died at a hospital on Governor's Island.[22] At the end of summer, the remaining members were sent back to New Orleans where they were never heard from again.

When members of the disbanded 1st Choctaw Battalion heard about the prisoners being sent to New York, they held a war council and drew a petition to be transferred to Samuel G. Spann's independent scouts. A delegation was sent to Richmond, Virginia, and the petition was granted. Spann's Battalion was headquartered in Mobile and, later, Tuscaloosa.[20] The Indians remained with Spann until the end of the War.

Native Americans in the Union Army[edit]
Native Americans swearing in for the American Civil War.

The Delaware tribe had a long history of allegiance to the U.S. government, despite removal to the Wichita Indian Agency in Oklahoma and the Indian Territory in Kansas.[2] On October 1, 1861 the Delaware people proclaimed their alliance to the Union.[2] A journalist from Harper's Weekly described them as being armed with tomahawks, scalping knives, and rifles.[2]

In January 1862, William Dole, U.S. Commissioner of Indian Affairs, asked Native American agents to "engage forthwith all the vigorous and able-bodied Native Americans in their respective agencies."[2] The request resulted in the assembly of the 1st and 2nd Indian Home Guard.[2]

In Oklahoma, much of the Creek peoples sided with the Union.[6] The majority of the Creek initially sided with the Union as two-thirds of the people preferred to be guided by the advice of their chief Opothleyahola. However, former Chief McIntosh sided with the South, whose leaders appointed him a colonel in the Confederate Army.[5]

New York[edit]

Early in the war, acceptance of Native Americans in the Union Army was uneven. In New York State, prominent Natives such as Peter Wilson, Eli Parker and his brother, Newton were rebuffed when they sought to volunteer, but in October 1861, 25 Saint Regis Mohawk enrolled in the 98th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment. Ultimately at least 162 and as many as 300 New York natives served the Union. Newton Parker enlisted in June 1862 as a non-commissioned officer in the 53rd New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment, and later transferred to Company D of the 132nd New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment, known as the Tuscarora Company, and grant was commissioned as assistant adjutant general of volunteers on the staff of John E. Smith, a division general under Ulysses S. Grant, with the rank of captain on May 25, 1863, although never put in command of infantry.[23]


Aftermath[edit]
Cherokee confederates (Thomas' Legion) at the U.C.V reunion in New Orleans, 1903.

Native American communities were totally devastated by the War. The Trans Mississippi Theater saw the Native Nations reduced to rubble. Historians claim they were hardest hit of all who participated in the War.[citation needed]

In the Western Theater, the Mississippi Choctaw were ignored and forgotten for nearly twenty years. It wasn't until 1900 when Samuel G. Spann began writing about his wartime experiences that the Mississippi Choctaw got some acknowledgment. Spann later commanded a U.C.V. camp in Mississippi. The Florida Seminole's recognition during the War was barely recorded. The North Carolina Cherokee was well remembered for their role. They created a U.C.V. Camp. South Carolina's Catawba erected a memorial in honor of their deeds.

Most tribes among Indigenous nations were negatively affected by the Civil War. In particular, the Creeks and the Cherokees suffered devastating losses. The Cherokee nation was the most implicated Indigenous nation in the Civil War, whether on the Union side or the Confederacy. During the Creeks’ and Cherokees’ first two months in the war, almost 300 died in Kansas while around 4,000 were killed overall by the end of December 1861. By the end of the first summer of the war, more than one tenth of the Creeks deceased, which was a similar death rate compared to most other tribes. As a result of the war, the conditions of many refugees still seeking help remained disastrous for many months after the end of the war. Many of those refugees suffered from starvation.

Overall, the Cherokee nation suffered more losses than any other Indigenous tribe. As a result of the war, many Cherokees were forced to flee the nation and head towards foreign lands for safety and survival. Around 22% of the Cherokee nation perished during the war. Many children were severely affected psychologically as they watched their family members get brutally killed or die of deplorable conditions. Among the Cherokees, about 35% of adult females were left as widows and a large percentage of children became orphans. Besides the enormous death toll, a huge amount of land was lost and the plentiful crops and livestock once grown were completely gone. Many who survived were considered “homeless refugees.” Nearly all structures in the nation were destroyed and the only option left was to rebuild.[24][25]

Tribes involved in battles[edit]See also[edit]References[edit]
  1. ^ Ely Parker Famous Native Americans
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah aiaj ak al am an ao ap aq ar W. David Baird; et al. (January 5, 2009). ""We are all Americans", Native Americans in the Civil War". Native Americans.com. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g "Native Americans in the Civil War". Ethic Composition of Civil War Forces (C.S & U.S.A.). January 5, 2009. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
  4. ^ Jump up to:a b Rodmans, Leslie. The Five Civilized Tribes and the American Civil War (PDF). p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 23, 2011.
  5. ^ Jump up to:a b c Wiley Britton (January 5, 2009). "Union and Confederate Indians in the Civil War "Battles and Leaders of the Civil War"". Civil War Potpourri. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
  6. ^ Jump up to:a b Chad Williams, "Battle of Round Mountain" Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture.
  7. ^ Michael A. Hughes, "Battle of Chusto-Talasah." Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture.
  8. ^ Michael A. Hughes, "Battle of Chustenahlah," "'Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture.
  9. ^ William Loren Katz (2008). "Africans and Indians: Only in America". William Loren Katz. Archived from the original on May 29, 2007. Retrieved September 20, 2008.
  10. ^ Jump up to:a b Angela Y. Walton-Raji (2008). "Battles Fought in Indian Territory and Battles Fought by I.T. Freedmen outside of Indian Territory". Oklahoma's Black Indians. Retrieved October 24,2008.
  11. ^ Steven L. Warren, "Battles of Cabin Creek," Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History
  12. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k "Native Americans". History Central.com. January 5, 2009. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
  13. ^ Kenneth Carley. The Dakota War of 1862.
  14. ^ Rodman, Leslie. The Five Civilized Tribes and the American Civil War (PDF). p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 23, 2011.
  15. ^ "Confederate States of America – Message to Congress March 12, 1861 (Indian Affairs)". Yale Law School. 1861. Retrieved August 11, 2010.
  16. ^ Garrison, Webb (1995). "Padday Some Day". More Civil War Curiosities. Rutledge Hill Press.
  17. ^ Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. "Choctaw". Retrieved August 11, 2008.
  18. ^ "Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma: 1880 – Jackson F. McCurtain". 1880. Archived from the original on February 2, 2009. Retrieved February 8, 2008.
  19. ^ "The Choctaw". Museum of the Red River. 2005. Archived from the original on June 15, 2009.
  20. ^ Jump up to:a b Ferguson, Robert. "Southeastern Indians During The Civil War". The Backwoodsman. Vol. 39 no. 2 (Mar/Apr 2018 ed.). Bandera, Texas: Charlie Richie Sr. pp. 63–65. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
  21. ^ Spann, S. G. (December 1905). "Choctaw Indians As Confederate Soldiers". Confederate Veteran Magazine. Vol. XIII no. 12. pp. 560–561. Archived from the original on October 25, 2007. Retrieved February 6, 2008.
  22. ^ Kidwell, Clara (1995). "The Choctaws in Mississippi after 1830". Choctaws and Missionaries in Mississippi, 1818–1918. University of Oklahoma. p. 170. ISBN 0-8061-2691-4.
  23. ^ Armstrong, William H. Warrior in Two Camps: Ely S. Parker, Union General and Seneca Chief. Syracuse University Press, 1990. p80-83
  24. ^ Crowe, Clint. "War in the Nations: The Devastation of a Removed People during the American Civil War." Order No. 3361692 University of Arkansas, 2009. Ann Arbor: ProQuest. Web. 15 Apr. 2019.
  25. ^ Fritz, Emma Elizabeth. “they are carried in our Blood”: Violence and memory in the Nineteenth-Century Cherokee Nation.” Order No. 10274127 Oklahoma State University, 2017. Ann Arbor: ProQuest. Web. 18 Apr. 2019.
Further reading[edit]
  • Confer, Clarissa W. The Cherokee Nation in the Civil War (Univ.of Oklahoma Press, 2007)
  • Connole, Joseph. The Civil War and the Subversion of American Indian Sovereignty (McFarland & Company, Inc. Publishers, 2017)
  • Dale, Edward Everett. "The Cherokees in the Confederacy." Journal of Southern History 13.2 (1947): 159-185. in JSTOR
  • Fisher, Paul Thomas. "Confederate empire and the Indian treaties: Pike, McCulloch, and the Five Civilized Tribes, 1861-1862" (MA thesis Baylor U. 2011). online; bibliography pp 107–19.
  • Gibson, Arrell Morgan. "Native Americans and the Civil War," American Indian Quarterly (1985) 9#4 pp. 385–410 in JSTOR
  • Gibson, Arrell (1981), Oklahoma, a History of Five Centuries, University of Oklahoma Press, ISBN 0-8061-1758-3
  • Hauptman, Laurence M. Between Two Fires: American Indians in the Civil War (1995) excerpt
  • Johnston, Carolyn. Cherokee Women in Crisis: Trail of Tears, Civil War, and Allotment, 1838-1907 (University of Alabama Press, 2003).
  • Minges, Patrick. Slavery in the Cherokee Nation: The Keetowah Society and the Defining of a People, 1855-1867 (Routledge, 2003)
  • Moore, Jessie Randolph. "The Five Great Indian Nations: Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole, and Creek: The Part They Played in Behalf of the Confederacy in the War Between the States." Chronicles of Oklahoma 29 (1951): 324-336.
  • Smith, Troy. "The Civil War Comes to Indian Territory," Civil War History (Sept 2013) 59#3 pp 279–319 online
  • Stevens, Scott Manning. "American Indians and the Civil War" in Why You Can't Teach United States' History without American Indians (Univ. of North Carolina-Chapel Hill Press, 2015).
  • Wickett, Murray R. Contested Territory: Whites, Native Americans and African Americans in Oklahoma, 1865-1907 (Louisiana State Univ. Press, 2000)

The 21st century U.S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, and the Indian Ocean. It is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and rapidly respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U.S. foreign and military policy.


Flags of the Confederate States of America
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This article is about historical uses of flags associated with the defunct Confederate States of America. For modern uses, see Modern display of the Confederate battle flag.
[[PASTING TABLES IS NOT SUPPORTED]]

Three successive designs served as the official national flag of the Confederate States of America (the "Confederate States" or the "Confederacy") during its existence from 1861 to 1865. The flags were known as the "Stars and Bars", used from 1861 to 1863, the "Stainless Banner", used from 1863 to 1865, and the "Blood-Stained Banner", used in 1865 shortly before the Confederacy's dissolution. A rejected national flag design was also utilized as a battle flag by the Confederate army and featured in the "Stainless Banner" and "Blood-Stained Banner" designs. Although this design was never a national flag, it is commonly recognized as a symbol of the Confederacy.

Since the end of the American Civil War, private and official use of Confederacy's flags, particularly the battle flag, has continued amid philosophical, political, cultural, and racial controversy in the United States. These include flags displayed in states; cities, towns and counties; schools, colleges and universities; private organizations and associations; and by individuals.

The state flag of Mississippi features the Confederate army's battle flag in the canton, or upper left corner, the only current U.S. state flag to do so. The state flag of Georgia is very similar to the "Stars and Bars"; a prior design incorporating the Confederate battle flag was in use from 1956 until 2001.

First flag: the "Stars and Bars" (1861–1863)
  • First national flag with 7 stars
    (March 4 – May 21, 1861)

  • First national flag with 9 stars
    (May 21 – July 2, 1861)

  • First national flag with 11 stars
    (July 2 – November 28, 1861)

  • First national flag with 13 stars
    (December 10, 1861 – May 1, 1863)[14]

The first official national flag of the Confederacy, often called the Stars and Bars, flew from March 4, 1861, to May 1, 1863. It was designed by Prussian-American artist Nicola Marschall in Marion, Alabama, and resembled the Flag of Austria, with which Marschall would have been familiar.[15][16] The "Stars and Bars" flag was adopted March 4, 1861, in the first temporary national capital of Montgomery, Alabama, and raised over the dome of that first Confederate capitol. Marschall also designed the Confederate army uniform.[16]

A monument in Louisburg, North Carolina, claims the "Stars and Bars" "was designed by a son of North Carolina / Orren Randolph Smith / and made under his direction by / Catherine Rebecca (Murphy) Winborne. / Forwarded to Montgomery, Ala. Feb 12, 1861, / Adopted by the Provisional Congress March 4, 1861".[17]

A Confederate "Stars and Bars" flag, captured by soldiers of the Union Army at Columbia, South Carolina.

One of the first acts of the Provisional Confederate Congress was to create the Committee on the Flag and Seal, chaired by William Porcher Miles, a congressman and Fire-Eater from South Carolina. The committee asked the public to submit thoughts and ideas on the topic and was, as historian John M. Coski puts it, "overwhelmed by requests not to abandon the 'old flag' of the United States." Miles had already designed a flag that later became known as the Confederate Battle Flag, and he favored his flag over the "Stars and Bars" proposal. But given the popular support for a flag similar to the U.S. flag ("the Stars and Stripes" – originally established and designed in June 1777 during the Revolutionary War), the "Stars and Bars" design was approved by the committee.[18]

When the American Civil War broke out, the "Stars and Bars" caused confusion on the battlefield at the First Battle of Bull Run because of its similarity to the U.S. flag, especially when it was hanging limp, down on the flagstaff.[19] The "Stars and Bars" was also criticized on ideological grounds for its resemblance to the U.S. flag. Many Confederates disliked the Stars and Bars, seeing it as symbolic of a centralized federal power the Confederate states were seceding from.[20] As early as April 1861, a month after the flag's adoption, some were already criticizing the flag, calling it a "servile imitation" and a "detested parody" of the U.S. flag.[3] In January 1862, George William Bagby, writing for the Southern Literary Messenger, wrote that many Confederates disliked the flag. "Every body wants a new Confederate flag," Bagby wrote. "The present one is universally hated. It resembles the Yankee flag and that is enough to make it unutterably detestable." The editor of the Charleston Mercury expressed a similar view: "It seems to be generally agreed that the 'Stars and Bars' will never do for us. They resemble too closely the dishonored 'Flag of Yankee Doodle' … we imagine that the 'Battle Flag' will become the Southern Flag by popular acclaim." William T. Thompson, the editor of the Savannah-based Daily Morning News also objected to the flag, due to its aesthetic similarity to the U.S. flag, which for some Confederates had negative associations with emancipation and abolitionism. Thompson stated in April 1863 that he disliked the adopted flag "on account of its resemblance to that of the abolition despotism against which we are fighting."[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]

Over the course of the flag's use by the Confederacy, additional stars were added to the flag's canton, eventually bringing the total number of stars on the flag to thirteen. This reflected the Confederacy's claims of having admitted Kentucky and Missouri into the Confederacy. Although they were represented in the Confederate Congress for the duration of its meetings, and had shadow governments made up of deposed former state politicians, neither state was ever fully controlled or administered by the Confederacy. The first showing of the 13-star flag was outside the Ben Johnson House in Bardstown, Kentucky; the 13-star design was also in use as the Confederate navy's battle ensign.

Second flag: the "Stainless Banner" (1863–1865)
  • Second national flag
    (May 1, 1863 – March 4, 1865),[14] 2:1 ratio

  • Second national flag, also used as the Confederate navy’s ensign, 3:2 ratio

  • A 12-star variant of the Stainless Banner produced in Mobile, Alabama

During the solicitation for a second Confederate national flag, many different types of designs were proposed, nearly all based on the battle flag, which by 1863 had become well-known and popular among those living in the Confederacy. The Confederate Congress specified that the new design be a white field "...with the union (now used as the battle flag) to be a square of two-thirds the width of the flag, having the ground red; thereupon a broad saltire of blue, bordered with white, and emblazoned with mullets or five-pointed stars, corresponding in number to that of the Confederate States."[21]

The flag is also known as the Stainless Banner, and the matter of the person behind its design remains a point of contention. On April 23, 1863, the Savannah Morning News editor William Tappan Thompson, with assistance from William Ross Postell, a Confederate blockade runner, published an editorial championing a design featuring the battle flag on a white background he referred to later as "The White Man's Flag."[6] In explaining the white background, Thompson wrote, "As a people we are fighting to maintain the Heaven-ordained supremacy of the white man over the inferior or colored race; a white flag would thus be emblematical of our cause."[1][2][3][4][7][8][9][10] In a letter to Confederate Congressman C. J. Villeré, dated April 24, 1863, a design similar to Thompson's was proposed by General P. G. T. Beauregard, "whose earlier penchant for practicality had established the precedent for visual distinctiveness on the battlefield, proposed that 'a good design for the national flag would be the present battle-flag as Union Jack, and the rest all white or all blue'....The final version of the second national flag, adopted May 1, 1863, did just this: it set the St. Andrew's Cross of stars in the Union Jack with the rest of the civilian banner entirely white."[22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29]

The Confederate Congress debated whether the white field should have a blue stripe and whether it should be bordered in red. William Miles delivered a speech supporting the simple white design that was eventually approved. He argued that the battle flag must be used, but for a national flag it was necessary to emblazon it, but as simply as possible, with a plain white field.[30] When Thompson received word the Congress had adopted the design with a blue stripe, he published an editorial on April 28 in opposition, writing that "the blue bar running up the centre of the white field and joining with the right lower arm of the blue cross, is in bad taste, and utterly destructive of the symmetry and harmony of the design."[1][5] Confederate Congressman Peter W. Gray proposed the amendment that gave the flag its white field.[31] Gray stated that the white field represented "purity, truth and freedom."[32]

Regardless of who truly originated the design of the Stainless Banner, whether by heeding Thompson's editorials or Beauregard's letter, the Stainless Banner was officially adopted by the Confederate Congress on May 1, 1863. The flags that were actually produced by the Richmond Clothing Depot used the 1.5:1 ratio adopted for the Confederate navy's battle ensign, rather than the official 2:1 ratio.[11]

Initial reaction to the second national flag was favorable, but over time it became criticized for being "too white." Military officers also voiced complaints about the flag being too white, for various reasons, such as the danger of being mistaken for a flag of truce, especially on naval ships, and that it was too easily soiled.[13] The Columbia-based Daily South Carolinian observed that it was essentially a battle flag upon a flag of truce and might send a mixed message. Due to the flag's resemblance to one of truce, some Confederate soldiers cut off the white portion of the flag, leaving only the canton.[33]

The first official use of the "Stainless Banner" was to drape the coffin of General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson as it lay in state in the Virginia capitol, May 12, 1863.[34] As a result of this first usage, the flag received the alternate nickname of the "Jackson Flag".

Third flag: the "Blood-Stained Banner" (1865)
  • Third national flag (after March 4, 1865)

  • Third national flag as commonly manufactured, with a square canton

The third national flag (also called the "Blood-Stained Banner") was adopted March 4, 1865. The red vertical bar was proposed by Major Arthur L. Rogers, who argued that the pure white field of the Second National flag could be mistaken as a flag of truce: when hanging limp in no wind, the flag's "Southern Cross" canton could accidentally stay hidden, so the flag could mistakenly appear all white.

Rogers lobbied successfully to have this alteration introduced in the Confederate Senate. He defended his redesign as having "as little as possible of the Yankee blue", and described it as symbolizing the primary origins of the people of the Confederacy, with the saltire of the Scottish flag and the red bar from the flag of France.[13]

The Flag Act of 1865, passed by the Confederate congress near the very end of the War, describes the flag in the following language:

The Congress of the Confederate States of America do enact, That the flag of the Confederate States shall be as follows: The width two-thirds of its length, with the union (now used as the battle flag) to be in width three-fifths of the width of the flag, and so proportioned as to leave the length of the field on the side of the union twice the width of the field below it; to have the ground red and a broad blue saltire thereon, bordered with white and emblazoned with mullets or five pointed stars, corresponding in number to that of the Confederate States; the field to be white, except the outer half from the union to be a red bar extending the width of the flag.[12]

Despite the passage of the Flag Act of 1865, very few of these third national flags were actually manufactured and put into use in the field, with many Confederates never seeing the flag. Moreover, the ones made by the Richmond Clothing Depot used the square canton of the second national flag rather than the slightly rectangular one that was specified by the law.[12]

Other flags

In addition to the national flags of the Confederacy, a wide variety of flags and banners were flown by Southerners during the Civil War. Most famously, the "Bonnie Blue Flag" was used as an unofficial flag during the early months of 1861. It was flying above the Confederate batteries that first opened fire on Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor, in South Carolina beginning the Civil War. The "Van Dorn battle flag" was also carried by Confederate troops fighting in the Trans-Mississippi and Western theaters of war. In addition, many military units had their own regimental flags they would carry into battle.[35]

Flags of individual Confederate states[[PASTING TABLES IS NOT SUPPORTED]]Battle flag
Three versions of the flag of the Confederate States of America and the Confederate Battle Flag are shown on this printed poster from 1896. The "Stars and Bars" can be seen in the upper left. Standing at the center are Stonewall Jackson, P. G. T. Beauregard, and Robert E. Lee, surrounded by bust portraits of Jefferson Davis, Alexander Stephens, and various Confederate army officers, such as James Longstreet and A. P. Hill.
The Battle Flag of the Army of Northern Virginia
Battle flag of Forrest's Cavalry Corps, 1863–65
The battle flag used by the Army of the Trans-Mississippi
Cherokee Confederates reunion in New Orleans, 1903

At the First Battle of Manassas, near Manassas, Virginia, the similarity between the "Stars and Bars" and the "Stars and Stripes" caused confusion and military problems. Regiments carried flags to help commanders observe and assess battles in the warfare of the era. At a distance, the two national flags were hard to tell apart.[36] In addition, Confederate regiments carried many other flags, which added to the possibility of confusion.

After the battle, General P. G. T. Beauregard wrote that he was "resolved then to have [our flag] changed if possible, or to adopt for my command a 'Battle flag', which would be Entirely different from any State or Federal flag."[19] He turned to his aide, who happened to be William Porcher Miles, the former chairman of the Confederate Congress's Committee on the Flag and Seal. Miles described his rejected national flag design to Beauregard. Miles also told the Committee on the Flag and Seal about the general's complaints and request that the national flag be changed. The committee rejected the idea by a four-to-one vote, after which Beauregard proposed the idea of having two flags. He described the idea in a letter to his commanding General Joseph E. Johnston:

I wrote to [Miles] that we should have 'two' flags — a 'peace' or parade flag, and a 'war' flag to be used only on the field of battle — but congress having adjourned no action will be taken on the matter — How would it do us to address the War Dept. on the subject of Regimental or badge flags made of red with two blue bars crossing each other diagonally on which shall be introduced the stars, ... We would then on the field of battle know our friends from our Enemies.[19]

The flag that Miles had favored when he was chairman of the "Committee on the Flag and Seal" eventually became the battle flag and, ultimately, the most popular flag of the Confederacy. According to Museum of the Confederacy Director John Coski, Miles' design was inspired by one of the many "secessionist flags" flown at the South Carolina secession convention in Charleston of December 1860. That flag was a blue St George's Cross (an upright or Latin cross) on a red field, with 15 white stars on the cross, representing the slave-holding states,[37][38] and, on the red field, palmetto and crescent symbols. Miles received a variety of feedback on this design, including a critique from Charles Moise, a self-described "Southerner of Jewish persuasion." Moise liked the design but asked that "... the symbol of a particular religion not be made the symbol of the nation." Taking this into account, Miles changed his flag, removing the palmetto and crescent, and substituting a heraldic saltire ("X") for the upright cross. The number of stars was changed several times as well. He described these changes and his reasons for making them in early 1861. The diagonal cross was preferable, he wrote, because "it avoided the religious objection about the cross (from the Jews and many Protestant sects), because it did not stand out so conspicuously as if the cross had been placed upright thus." He also argued that the diagonal cross was "more Heraldric [sic] than Ecclesiastical, it being the 'saltire' of Heraldry, and significant of strength and progress."[39]

According to Coski, the Saint Andrew's Cross (also used on the flag of Scotland as a white saltire on a blue field) had no special place in Southern iconography at the time, and if Miles had not been eager to conciliate the Southern Jews, his flag would have used the traditional upright "Saint George's Cross" (as used on the flag of England, a red cross on a white field). A colonel named James B. Walton submitted a battle flag design essentially identical to Miles' except with an upright Saint George's cross, but Beauregard chose the diagonal cross design.[40]

Miles' flag and all the flag designs up to that point were rectangular ("oblong") in shape. General Johnston suggested making it square to conserve material. Johnston also specified the various sizes to be used by different types of military units. Generals Beauregard and Johnston and Quartermaster General Cabell approved the design of the 12-star Confederate Battle Flag at the Ratcliffe home, which served briefly as Beauregard's headquarters, near Fairfax Court House in September 1861. The 12th star represented Missouri. President Jefferson Davis arrived by train at Fairfax Station soon after and was shown the design for the new battle flag at the Ratcliffe House. Hetty Cary and her sister and cousin made prototypes. One such 12-star flag resides in the collection of Richmond's Museum of the Confederacy and the other is in the Confederate Memorial Hall Museum in New Orleans.

On November 28, 1861, Confederate soldiers in General Robert E. Lee's newly reorganized Army of Northern Virginia received the new battle flags in ceremonies at Centreville and Manassas, Virginia, and carried them throughout the Civil War. Beauregard gave a speech encouraging the soldiers to treat the new flag with honor and that it must never be surrendered. Many soldiers wrote home about the ceremony and the impression the flag had upon them, the "fighting colors" boosting morale after the confusion at the Battle of First Manassas. From then on, the battle flag grew in its identification with the Confederacy and the South in general.[41] The flag's stars represented the number of states in the Confederacy. The distance between the stars decreased as the number of states increased, reaching thirteen when the secessionist factions of Kentucky and Missouri joined in late 1861.[42]

The Army of Northern Virginia battle flag assumed a prominent place post-war when it was adopted as the copyrighted emblem of the United Confederate Veterans. Its continued use by the Southern Army's post-war veterans groups, the United Confederate Veterans (U.C.V.) and the later Sons of Confederate Veterans, (S.C.V.), and elements of the design by related similar female descendants organizations of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, (U.D.C.), led to the assumption that it was, as it has been termed, "the soldier's flag" or "the Confederate battle flag".

The square "battle flag" is also properly known as "the flag of the Army of Northern Virginia". It was sometimes called "Beauregard's flag" or "the Virginia battle flag". A Virginia Department of Historic Resources marker declaring Fairfax, Virginia as the birthplace of the Confederate battle flag was dedicated on April 12, 2008, near the intersection of Main and Oak Streets, in Fairfax, Virginia.[43][44][45]

Naval jacks and ensigns

The fledgling Confederate States Navy adopted and used several types of flags, banners, and pennants aboard all CSN ships: jacks, battle ensigns, and small boat ensigns, as well as commissioning pennants, designating flags, and signal flags.[citation needed]

The First Confederate Navy jacks, in use from 1861 to 1863, consisted of a circle of seven to fifteen five-pointed white stars against a field of "medium blue." It was flown forward aboard all Confederate warships while they were anchored in port. One seven-star jack still exists today (found aboard the captured ironclad CSS Atlanta) that is actually "dark blue" in color (see illustration below, left).[46]

The Second Confederate Navy Jack was a rectangular cousin of the Confederate Army's battle flag and was in use from 1863 until 1865. It existed in a variety of dimensions and sizes, despite the CSN's detailed naval regulations. The blue color of the diagonal saltire's "Southern Cross" was much lighter than the dark blue of the battle flag.[46]

  • The First Confederate Navy Jack, 1861–1863

  • The First Confederate Navy Ensign, 1861–1863

  • The Second Confederate Navy Jack, 1863–1865

  • The Second Confederate Navy Ensign, 1863–1865

  • The Second Navy Ensign of the ironclad CSS Atlanta

  • The 9-star First Naval Ensign of the paddle steamer CSS Curlew

  • The 11-star Ensign of the Confederate Privateer Jefferson Davis

  • A 12-star First Confederate Navy Ensign of the gunboat CSS Ellis, 1861-1862

  • The Command flag of Captain William F. Lynch, flown as ensign of his flagship, CSS Seabird, 1862

  • Pennant of Admiral Franklin Buchanan, CSS Tennessee, at Battle of Mobile Bay, 5th of August, 1864

  • Digital recreation of Admiral Buchanan's pennant

  • Admiral's Rank flag of Franklin Buchanan, also flown from the CSS Tennessee during the battle of Mobile Bay

  • Confederate naval flag, captured when General William Sherman took Savannah, Georgia, 1864

The first national flag, also known as the Stars and Bars (see above), served from 1861 to 1863 as the Confederate Navy's first battle ensign. It was generally made with an aspect ratio of 2:3, but a few very wide 1:2 ratio ensigns still survive today in museums and private collections. As the Confederacy grew, so did the numbers of white stars seen on the ensign's dark blue canton: seven-, nine-, eleven-, and thirteen-star groupings were typical. Even a few fourteen- and fifteen-starred ensigns were made to include states that were expected to secede but never completely joined the Confederacy.[citation needed]

The second national flag was later adapted as a naval ensign, using a shorter 2:3 ratio than the 1:2 ratio adopted by the Confederate Congress for the national flag. This particular battle ensign was the only example taken around the world, finally becoming the last Confederate flag lowered in the Civil War; this happened aboard CSS Shenandoah in Liverpool, England on November 7, 1865.

Controversy
For use of Confederate symbols in modern society and popular culture, see Modern display of the Confederate flag.
An elongated version of the Battle Flag of the Army of Tennessee, and similar to The Second Confederate Navy Jack, in use from 1863 until 1865, although with the darker blue field of the Army's battle flag.

Despite never having historically represented the Confederate States of America as a country, nor having been officially recognized as one of its national flags, the rectangular Battle Flag of the Army of Northern Virginia and its variants are now flag types commonly referred to as the Confederate Flag. This design has become a widely recognized symbol of the Southern United States[47] and is also known as the rebel flag, Dixie flag, traitor's flag, and Southern cross.[48][49][50] It is sometimes incorrectly referred to as the Stars and Bars, the name of the first national Confederate flag.[51]

The "rebel flag" is a highly divisive and polarizing symbol in the United States[52][53] because of its historical association to racism and white supremacy.[54][55] A Politico-Morning Consult poll of June 2020 shows that 44% view it as a symbol of Southern pride while 36% say it is a symbol of racism.[56]

















GallerySee alsoNotes
  1. ^ William Tappan Thompson, editor of Savannah's Daily Morning News, used a different nickname for the flag, calling it "The White Man's Flag," saying that the flag's white field symbolized the "supremacy of the white man." But it was a nickname that never gained traction with the public.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]
  2. ^ Although the officially specified proportions were 1:2, many of the flags that actually ended up being produced used a 1.5:1 aspect ratio.[11]
  3. ^ Although the officially designated design specified a rectangular canton, many of the flags that ended up being produced utilized a square-shaped canton.[12]
References
  1. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Preble 1872, pp. 414–417
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b c Preble 1880, pp. 523–525
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Coski, John M. (May 13, 2013). "The Birth of the 'Stainless Banner'". The New York Times. New York: The New York Times Company. Archived from the original on November 7, 2019. Retrieved January 27, 2014. A handful of contemporaries linked the new flag design to the "peculiar institution" that was at the heart of the South's economy, social system and polity: slavery. Bagby characterized the flag motif as the "Southern Cross" – the constellation, not a religious symbol – and hailed it for pointing 'the destiny of the Southern master and his African slave' southward to 'the banks of the Amazon,' a reference to the desire among many Southerners to expand Confederate territory into Latin America. In contrast, the editor of the Savannah, Ga., Morning News focused on the white field on which the Southern Cross was emblazoned. "As a people, we are fighting to maintain the heaven-ordained supremacy of the white man over the inferior or colored races. A White Flag would be thus emblematical of our cause." He dubbed the new flag "the White Man's Flag," a sobriquet that never gained traction.
  4. ^ Jump up to:a b c Thompson, William T. (April 23, 1863). "Daily Morning News". Savannah, Georgia.
  5. ^ Jump up to:a b c Thompson, William T. (April 28, 1863). "Daily Morning News". Savannah, Georgia.
  6. ^ Jump up to:a b c Thompson, William T. (May 4, 1863). "Daily Morning News". Savannah, Georgia.
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b c Loewen, James W.; Sebesta, Edward H. (2010). The Confederate and Neo Confederate Reader: The Great Truth about the 'Lost Cause'. Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-60473-219-1. OCLC 746462600. Archived from the original on December 13, 2013. Retrieved December 5, 2013. Confederates even showed their preoccupation with race in their flag. Civil War buffs know that 'the Confederate flag' waved today was never the official flag of the Confederate States of America. Rather, it was the flag of the Army of Northern Virginia. During the war, the Confederacy adopted three official flags. The first, sometimes called 'the Stars and Bars,' drew many objections 'on account of its resemblance to that of the abolition despotism against which we are fighting,' in the words of the editor of the Savannah Morning News, quoted herein.
  8. ^ Jump up to:a b Kim, Kyle; Krishnakumar, Priya. "What you should know about the Confederate flag's evolution". Los Angeles Times(June 23, 2015). California. Archived from the original on July 12, 2015. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  9. ^ Jump up to:a b Wood, Marie Stevens Walker (1957). Stevens-Davis and allied families: a memorial volume of history, biography, and genealogy. p. 44. Retrieved September 1, 2015. This design was suggested by William T. Thompson, editor of the Savannah (Ga.) Morning News, who, in an editorial published April 23, 1863, stated that through this design could be attained all the...
  10. ^ Jump up to:a b Allen, Frederick (May 25, 1996). Atlanta Rising: The Invention of an International City 1946–1996. p. 67. ISBN 9781461661672. Retrieved September 1, 2015. By modern standards, the greatest flaw of the 'Stainless Banner' was its other popular nickname, bestowed by William T. Thompson, editor of the Savannah Daily Morning News, who called it 'the White Man's Flag' and argued that it represented 'the cause of a superior race and a higher civilization contending against ignorance, infidelity, and barbarism' – a bit of racist rhetoric that is plainly unacceptable in current public discourse.
  11. ^ Jump up to:a b "The Second Confederate National Flag (Flags of the Confederacy)". Archived from the original on February 9, 2009. Retrieved October 24, 2005.
  12. ^ Jump up to:a b c "The Third Confederate National Flag (Flags of the Confederacy)". Archived from the original on January 30, 2009. Retrieved July 29, 2007.
  13. ^ Jump up to:a b c Coski 2005, pp. 17–18
  14. ^ Jump up to:a b "Confederate States of America government". Retrieved October 7, 2014.
  15. ^ "Nicola Marschall". The Encyclopedia of Alabama. April 25, 2011. Retrieved July 29, 2011. The flag does resemble that of the Germanic European nation of Austria, which as a Prussian artist, Marschall would have known well.
  16. ^ Jump up to:a b Hume, Edgar Erskine (August 1940). "Nicola Marschall: Excerpts from "The German Artist Who Designed the Confederate Flag and Uniform"". The American-German Review. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
  17. ^ Commemorative Landscapes of North Carolina. "First Confederate Flag and Its Designer O.R. Smith, Louisburg". Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
  18. ^ Coski 2005, pp. 4–5
  19. ^ Jump up to:a b c Coski 2005, p. 8
  20. ^ "The Declarations of Causes of Seceding States". Civil War Trust. Retrieved February 23, 2016. Our position is thoroughly identified with the institution of slavery—the greatest material interest of the world. Its labor supplies the product which constitutes by far the largest and most important portions of commerce of the earth. These products are peculiar to the climate verging on the tropical regions, and by an imperious law of nature, none but the black race can bear exposure to the tropical sun. These products have become necessities of the world, and a blow at slavery is a blow at commerce and civilization. That blow has been long aimed at the institution, and was at the point of reaching its consummation. There was no choice left us but submission to the mandates of abolition, or a dissolution of the Union, whose principles had been subverted to work out our ruin. That we do not overstate the dangers to our institution, a reference to a few facts will sufficiently prove.
  21. ^ Coski & The Second Confederate National Flag, Flags of the Confederacy
  22. ^ Bonner, Robert E., "Flag Culture and the Consolidation of Confederate Nationalism." Journal of Southern History, Vol. 68, No. 2 (May 2002), 318–319.
  23. ^ Coski, John M. (2005). The Confederate Battle Flag: America's Most Embattled Emblem. p. 16. ISBN 9780674029866.
  24. ^ Townsend, Edward D. (August 25, 2017). Saving the Union: My Days with Lincoln and Stanton (Annotated).
  25. ^ William Parker Snow, Lee and His Generals (1867), p.260 [1].
  26. ^ "Gen. Beauregard suggested the flag just adopted, or else a field of blue in place of the white." -"Letter from Richmond" by the Richmond correspondent of the Charleston Mercury, May 5, 1863, p.1, c.1.
  27. ^ John M. Coski, "The Birth of the Stainless Banner," New York Times Opinionator, (May 13, 2013). "Some congressmen and newspaper editors favored making the Army of Northern Virginia battle flag (in a rectangular shape) itself the new national flag. But Beauregard and others felt the nation needed its own distinctive symbol, and so recommended that the Southern Cross be emblazoned in the corner of a white field."
  28. ^ Martinez, J. Michael; Richardson, William D.; McNinch-Su, Ron (2000). Confederate Symbols in the Contemporary South. University Press of Florida. p. 98. ISBN 9780813017587.
  29. ^ "Letter of Beauregard to Villere ,April 24, 1863". Daily Dispatch. Richmond, VA. May 13, 1863.
  30. ^ Coski 2005, pp. 16–17
  31. ^ Journal of the Confederate Congress, Volume 6, p.477
  32. ^ Richmond Whig, May 5, 1863
  33. ^ Coski 2005, p. 18
  34. ^ John D. Wright, The Language of the Civil War, p.284; John M. Coski, The Confederate Battle Flag: America's Most Embattled Emblem (2005), p. 17.
  35. ^ North & South – The Official Magazine of the Civil War Society, Volume 11, Number 2, Page 30, Retrieved April 16, 2010, "The Stars and Bars" Archived July 14, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ Gevinson, Alan. "The Reason Behind the 'Stars and Bars". Teachinghistory.org. Retrieved October 8, 2011.
  37. ^ Coski, John M. (2009). The Confederate Battle Flag. Harvard University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-674-02986-6. Retrieved November 24, 2016.
  38. ^ Coski 2005, p. 5
  39. ^ Coski 2005, p. 5: "describes the 15 stars and the debate on religious symbolism."
  40. ^ Coski 2005, pp. 6–8
  41. ^ Coski 2005, p. 10
  42. ^ Coski 2005, p. 11
  43. ^ "Birthplace of the Confederate Battle Flag". The Historical Marker Database.
  44. ^ 37 New Historical Markers for Virginia's Roadways (PDF)(Report). Notes on Virginia. Virginia Department of Historic Resources. 2008. p. 71. B-261: Birthplace of the Confederate Battle Flag
  45. ^ "2008 Virginia Marker Dedication: Birthplace of the Confederate Battle Flag". FairfaxRifles.org. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  46. ^ Jump up to:a b Loeser, Pete. "American Civil War Flags". Historical Flags of Our Ancestors. Retrieved July 22, 2019.
  47. ^ Chapman, Roger (2011). Culture Wars: An Encyclopedia of Issues, Viewpoints, and Voices. M.E. Sharpe. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-7656-2250-1. Retrieved February 21, 2013.
  48. ^ Leonard, Ian (June 21, 2015). "What is the Confederate flag and what does it stand for?". Daily Mirror. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
  49. ^ CNN, By Dean Obeidallah, Special to. "Opinion: Confederate flag was the flag of traitors". CNN. Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  50. ^ Insider, Joe Davidson closeJoe DavidsonColumnist focusing on federal government issuesEmailEmailBioBioFollowFollowColumnist Joe Davidson covers federal government issues in the Federal; Post, formerly the Federal Diary Davidson previously was an assistant city editor at The Washington; Washington, a; Journal, foreign correspondent with the Wall Street; Agencies, Where He Covered Federal; Campaigns, Political. "The Confederate flag isn't just offensive. It's treasonous". Washington Post. Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  51. ^ Coski 2005, pp. 58
  52. ^ Little, Becky (June 26, 2015). "Why the Confederate Flag Made a 20th Century Comeback". National Geographic. National Geographic. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
  53. ^ The Associated Press (July 10, 2015). "Confederate flag removed: A history of the divisive symbol". Oregon Live.
  54. ^ "Confederate Flag". Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  55. ^ McWhorter, Diane (April 3, 2005). "'The Confederate Battle Flag': Clashing Symbols". The New York Times. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  56. ^ https://www.politico.com/f/?id=00000172-9afb-d6ae-adf6-9afb7b280000 (see page 21)

Who we are not a part of this group


National Socialist Movement (United States)
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The National Socialist Movement (NSM) is a neo-Nazi organization based in Detroit, Michigan. It is a part of the Nationalist Front.[11] The Party claimed to be the "largest and most active" National Socialist organization in the United States. Although classified as a hate group by the Southern Poverty Law Center, it refers to itself as a "white civil rights organization", and compares itself to the NAACP. The party also objects to being referred to as "racist" and "Neo-Nazi", stating that such descriptions of their goals are inaccurate. Each state has members in smaller groups within areas known as "regions". The NSM holds national meetings and smaller regional and unit meetings.[citation needed]

In January 2019, the leadership of the group was turned over to James Hart Stern, a black activist, who announced his intention to undermine the group and "eradicate" it.[12][13][14] In March 2019 in a press release the group's leader, Jeff Schoep said that Stern “does not speak for the NSM and he holds no legal standing with the NSM” and in addition to him speaking out against Stern he also noted that he was leaving and giving his position to Burt Colucci.[15][16] Jeff Schoep has since renounced his racist past and involvement in any racist groups.[17]

History[edit]
The original flag of the NSM, used until 2016.

The NSM was founded in 1974 in St. Paul, Minnesota, as the "National Socialist American Workers Freedom Movement" by Robert Brannen and Cliff Herrington, former members of the American Nazi Party before its decline. In 1994 Jeff Schoep became the group's chairman,[18], a position he held until January 2019.[14]

The NSM was responsible for leading the demonstration which sparked the 2005 Toledo riot.[19] In April 2006, the party held a rally on the capitol steps in Lansing, Michigan, which was met by a larger counter-rally and ended in scuffles.[20] In 2007, some members left to join the now-defunct National Socialist Order of America, which was led by 2008 presidential candidate John Taylor Bowles.[citation needed]

The NSM rally on the West lawn of the U.S. Capitol, Washington, D.C., 2008.

In January 2009, the party sponsored a half-mile section of U.S. Highway 160 outside of Springfield, Missouri, as part of the Adopt-A-Highway Trash Cleanup program.[21] The highway was later renamed the "Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel Memorial Highway" by the state legislature.[22]

In 2009, the NSM had 61 chapters in 35 states, making it the largest neo-Nazi group in the United States according to the Southern Poverty Law Center.[23] As of 2015, the NSM reports having direct organized presences in seven countries around the world, and other affiliations beyond that.[24][unreliable source?]

On April 17, 2010, 70 members of the NSM demonstrated against illegal immigration in front of the Los Angeles City Hall, drawing a counter protest of hundreds of anti-fascist demonstrators.[7]

In May 2011, the NSM was described by The New York Times as being "the largest supremacist group, with about 400 members in 32 states, though much of its prominence followed the decay of Aryan Nation and other neo-Nazi groups".[25]

On May 1, 2011, Jeff Hall, a leader of the California branch of the NSM, was killed by his 10-year-old emotionally troubled son, who claimed he was tired of Jeff beating him and his stepmother.[26] Hall had run in 2010 for a seat on the board of directors of a Riverside County water board, a race in which he earned approximately 30% of the vote.[27]

The NSM held a rally on September 3, 2011 in West Allis, Wisconsin, to protest incidents at the Wisconsin State Fair on August 5, 2011 when a large crowd of young African-Americans allegedly targeted and beat white people as they left the fair around 11 p.m. Police claimed that the incident began as a fight among African-American youths that was not racially motivated.[28][29] Dan Devine, the mayor of West Allis, stated on September 2, 2011, "I believe I speak for the citizens when I say they [the NSM] are not welcome here."[30]

In 2012, two former members of the NSM were arrested and sentenced to prison for drug trafficking, stockpiling weapons, and plotting terrorism against a Mexican consulate in the United States.[31]

As of March 2015, the organization had planned a return to Toledo, Ohio, for a rally focusing on crime in the area.

In June 2016, the group helped organize (with the Traditionalist Worker Party) the rally which turned into the 2016 Sacramento riot.[32][33] In November 2016, following the election of Donald Trump, the organization changed its logo, replacing the swastika with an Odal rune in an attempt to enter mainstream politics.[34][35]

The account of its leader, Jeff Schoep, was suspended by Twitter on December 18, 2017.[36][37]

Charlottesville suit against the NSM[edit]

After the August riot and violence rising from the Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, two lawsuits targeting 21 racist "alt-right" and hate group leaders, including the NSM and its leader Jeff Schoep, were filed in U.S. District Court for the Western District of Virginia and another lawsuit was filed in Virginia Circuit Court. Organizations named in both suits were the National Socialist Movement; the Traditionalist Workers Party (TWP); the League of the South (LOS), and Vanguard America, a two-year-old white supremacy group which claims to have 12 U.S. chapters. Two Ku Klux Klan groups, the Loyal White Knights and the East Coast Knights of the KKK, were named defendants in the federal suit.

The 96 page federal court filing accused the white supremacists of violating the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871 and other statutes and its plaintiffs seek compensation and punitive damages. It also asked the courts to intervene with legal orders that would prevent a repeat of the deadly events that occurred in Charlottesville on August 11 and 12, 2017, and bar the use of private militias at such events. The plaintiffs who were named in the 96-page federal suit were described as "University of Virginia undergraduates, law students and staff, persons of faith, ministers, parents, doctors, and businesspersons – white, brown and black; Christian and Jewish; young and old". The City of Charlottesville, along with several businesses and neighborhood associations, were plaintiffs in the 81-page state suit.

The federal and state lawsuits both claimed that the August rally in Charlottesville had been planned for weeks, with its organizers making extensive use of social media – coordinating everything from telling individuals to buy tiki torches to making use of an internet-based communications system that was originally designed for gamers. The federal suit claimed that "hundreds of neo-Nazis and white supremacists traveled from near and far to descend upon the college town ... in order to terrorize its residents, commit acts of violence, and use the town as a backdrop to showcase for the media and the nation a neo-nationalist agenda".

While the federal suit focused on prosecuting civil rights violations, the state suit focused on describing and prosecuting violations which it claimed were committed for the illegal purpose of using militia forces to protect alt-right and white nationalist demonstrations.[38][39][40][41]

Change of leadership[edit]

On February 28, 2019, the Associated Press reported that, according to Michigan corporate records, Jeff Schoep had been replaced as director and president of the NSM in January by James Hart Stern, a black activist. Stern became its leader after receiving a call for help from Schoep who wanted to get out of the organization due to the legal issues that were mounting against it,[14] and he has said that he wants to use his position to undermine the group. Stern had previously been instrumental in dissolving a chapter of the Ku Klux Klan in Michigan.[notes 1] Stern wrote in a blog post in February that he had worked with Schoep to replace the Nazi swastika as the group's symbol with an Odal rune, and that he would be meeting with Schoep to sign a proclamation in which the NSM would disavow white supremacy.[12][13]

Stern and Schoep began a relationship when Schoep called Stern in 2014 to ask about his connection with Edgar Ray Killen, the head of the Klan chapter that Stern dissolved. According to Stern, Schoep said that Stern was the first black man he had reached out to since Malcolm X. When Stern learned that Schoep was a white supremacist, he arranged for a meeting between the two men. They have since engaged in debates over the Holocaust, the swastika, white nationalism, and the fate of the NSM, with Stern attempting to change Schoep's mind. This he was not able to do, but Schoep came to him in 2019 for advice about the group's legal problems. He felt that the NSM was an "albatross hanging around his neck" and wished to cut ties with the group in order to start a new organization that would be more appreciated in the mainstream of white nationalism. Stern then encouraged Schoep to turn control of the NSM over to him, and Schoep agreed.[14]

Stern filed documents with a Federal court in Virginia, asking that it issue a judgment against the group before one of the pending Charlottesville-related lawsuits went to trial, but because the law does not allow a corporation to be its own attorney, Stern is looking for outside counsel to re-file the papers. Stern does not plan to dissolve the NSM in order to prevent any of its former members from reincorporating it. He plans to turn the group's website into a place for lessons about the Holocaust.[14]

The group's former community outreach director, Matthew Heimbach, commented that Schoep had been in conflict with its membership, which resisted the ideological changes that Schoep wished to make, and wanted to remain "a politically impotent white supremacist gang". Heimbach estimated that the group had 40 dues-paying members as of last year. In a video posted on his blog, Stern took credit for "eradicating" the NSM.[12][13] Burt Colucci is currently the NSM's 'Commander,' a position disputed by many outside of the neo-nazi group.[citation needed]

James Stern died of cancer on October 11, 2019,[42] leaving the future of his plans for the NSM uncertain.

Jeff Schoep has since renounced his racist past and involvement in any racist groups.[17]




We are American State Nationals, and not affiliated with White Nationals or their movements.





White nationalism
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[[PASTING TABLES IS NOT SUPPORTED]]

White nationalism is a type of nationalism or pan-nationalism which espouses the belief that white people are a race[1] and seeks to develop and maintain a white racial and national identity.[2][3][4] Its proponents identify with and are attached to the concept of a white nation, or a "white ethnostate".[5]

Analysts describe white nationalism as overlapping with white supremacism and white separatism.[6][4][7][8][9][10] White nationalism is sometimes described as a euphemism for, or subset of, white supremacism, and the two have been used interchangeably by journalists and analysts.[8][11] White separatism is the pursuit of a "white-only state"; supremacism is the belief that white people are superior to nonwhites and should dominate them,[7][8][9] taking ideas from social Darwinism and Nazism.[12] White nationalists generally avoid the term "supremacy" because it has negative connotations.[13][14]

White nationalists say they seek to ensure the survival of the white race, and the cultures of historically white states. They hold that white people should maintain their majority in majority-white countries, maintain their political and economic dominance, and that their cultures should be foremost.[4] Many white nationalists believe that miscegenation, multiculturalism, immigration of nonwhites and low birth rates among whites are threatening the white race,[7] and some believe these things are being promoted as part of an attempted white genocide.[7] Critics argue that the term "white nationalism" is simply a "rebranding" and ideas such as white pride exist solely to provide a sanitized public face for white supremacy, and that most white nationalist groups promote racial violence.[15]